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Preventive chemotherapy reverses covert, lymphatic-associated tissue change in young people with lymphatic filariasis in Myanmar.

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Douglass, Jan, Dykes, Lukah, Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3330-7629, Gordon, Susan, Leggat, Peter, Aye, Ni Ni, Win, San San, Wai, Tint, Win, Yi Yi, Nwe, Thet Wai and Graves, Patricia (2019) 'Preventive chemotherapy reverses covert, lymphatic-associated tissue change in young people with lymphatic filariasis in Myanmar.'. Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol 24, Issue 4, pp. 463-476.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES
This longitudinal comparative study investigated the effect of preventive chemotherapy (PC) on covert tissue changes associated with lymphatic filariasis (LF) among young people living in an LF-endemic area in Myanmar.
METHODS
Tissue compressibility and extracellular free fluid in the lower limbs of people aged 10-21 years were measured using indurometry and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Baseline measures were taken in October 2014, annual mass drug administration (MDA) of PC was delivered in December, and in March 2015 further PC was offered to LF-positive cases who had missed MDA. Follow-up measures were taken in February and June 2015.
RESULTS
A total of 50 antigen-positive cases and 46 antigen-negative controls were included. Self-reported PC consumption was 60.1% during 2014 MDA and 66.2% overall. At second follow-up, 24 of 34 cases and 27 of 43 controls had consumed PC. Significant and clinically relevant between-group differences at baseline were not found post-PC. Bayesian linear mixed models showed a significant change in indurometer scores at both calves for antigen-positive cases who consumed any PC (dominant calf: -0.30 [95% CI -0.52, -0.07], P < 0.05 and non-dominant calf: -0.35 [95% CI -0.58, -0.12], P < 0.01). Changes in antigen-negative participants or those not consuming PC were not significant.
CONCLUSION
This study is the first attempt to use simple field-friendly tools to track fluid and tissue changes after treatment of asymptomatic people infected with LF. Results suggested that PC alone is sufficient to reverse covert lymphatic disturbance. Longer follow-up of larger cohorts is required to confirm these improvements and whether they persist over time. These findings should prompt increased efforts to overcome low PC coverage, which misses many infected young people, particularly males, who are unaware of their infection status, unmotivated to take PC and at risk of developing lymphoedema. Indurometry and BIS should be considered in assessment of lymphatic filariasis-related lymphedema.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
WS Pediatrics > Diseases of Children and Adolescents > By System > WS 300 Hemic and lymphatic system
WS Pediatrics > By Age Groups > WS 460 Adolescence (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13212
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 12 Mar 2019 16:37
Last Modified: 21 Jun 2019 14:39
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/10344

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