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Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem in Niue under PacELF, 1999-2016.

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Carlingford, Catherine N, Melrose, Wayne, Mokoia, Grizelda, Graves, Patricia M, Ichimori, Kazuyo, Capuano, Corinne, Kim, Sung Hye, Aratchige, Padmasiri and Nosa, Manila (2019) 'Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem in Niue under PacELF, 1999-2016.'. Tropical Medicine and Health, Vol 47, Issue 20.

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Abstract

Background
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease which is targeted for elimination as a public health problem worldwide. Niue is a small self-governing South Pacific island nation with approximately 1600 residents that was formerly LF endemic. Here, we review the progress made towards eliminating LF in Niue since 1999.
Methods
This study has reviewed all the available literature relating to LF in Niue to assess surveillance efforts and the elimination of transmission. Reviewed documentation included both published and unpublished works including historical reports of LF, WHO PacELF records, and Niue Country Reports of the national LF elimination program.
Findings
Niue conducted mapping of baseline LF endemicity by testing the total present and consenting population for LF antigen with immunochromatographic test (ICT) in 1999, when circulating filarial antigen prevalence was 3.1% (n = 1794). Five nationwide annual mass drug administration (MDA) rounds with albendazole (400 mg) and diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) were undertaken from 2000 to 2004, with coverage reported from distribution records ranging from 78 to 99% of the eligible population, which excluded pregnant women and children under 2 years of age. A further whole population survey using ICT in 2001 found 1.3% positive (n = 1630). In 2004, antigen prevalence had reduced to 0.2% (n = 1285). A similar post-MDA survey in 2009 indicated antigen prevalence to be 0.5% (n = 1378). Seven positive cases were re-tested and re-treated every six months until negative.
Conclusions
After five rounds of MDA, Niue had reduced the LF antigen population prevalence in all ages from 3.1% to below 1% and maintained this prevalence for a further  five years. Due to Niue's small population, surveillance was done by whole population surveys. Niue's results support the WHO recommended strategy that five to six rounds of annual MDA with effective population coverage can successfully interrupt the transmission of LF. Niue received official acknowledgement of the validation of elimination of LF as a public health problem by the WHO Director-General and WHO Western Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) Regional Director at the 67th session of the Regional Committee for the Western Pacific held in Manila in October 2016.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > WC 20 Research (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-019-0141-1
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2019 13:56
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2019 14:39
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/10557

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