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Insecticide resistance levels and mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

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Badolo, Athanase, Sombié, Aboubacar, Pignatelli, Patricia, Sanon, Aboubakar, Yaméogo, Félix, Wangrawa, Dimitri W, Sanon, Antoine, Kanuka, Hirotaka, McCall, Philip ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0007-3985 and Weetman, David ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5820-1388 (2019) 'Insecticide resistance levels and mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations in and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 13, Issue 5, e0007439.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND
Recent outbreaks of dengue and other Aedes aegypti-borne arboviruses highlight the importance of a rapid response for effective vector control. Data on insecticide resistance and underlying mechanisms are essential for outbreak preparedness, but are sparse in much of Africa. We investigated the levels and heterogeneity of insecticide resistance and mechanisms of Ae. aegypti from contrasting settings within and around Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS
Bioassays were performed on larvae and adults to diagnose prevalence of resistance, and to assess levels where resistance was detected. Investigation of resistance mechanisms was performed using synergist bioassays, knockdown resistance (kdr) target site mutation genotyping and quantitative PCR expression analysis of candidate P450 genes. Larval dose-response assays indicated susceptibility to the organophosphates tested. Adult females were also susceptible to organophosphates, but resistance to carbamates was suspected in urban and semi-urban localities. Females from all localities showed resistance to pyrethroids but resistance prevalence and level were higher in urban and especially in semi-urban areas, compared to the rural population. Environment was also associated with susceptibility: adults reared from larvae collected in tires from the semi-urban site were significantly less resistant to pyrethroids than those collected from large outdoor drinking water containers ('drums'). Susceptibility to both pyrethroids tested was largely restored by pre-exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO), suggesting a strong metabolic basis to resistance. The 1534C kdr mutation was nearly fixed in semi-urban and urban areas but was far less common in the rural area, where the 1016I kdr mutation frequency was also significantly lower. P450 gene analysis detected limited over-expression of single candidates but significantly elevated average expression in the semi-urban site compared to both a susceptible laboratory colony, and females from the other collection sites.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE
Our results reveal pyrethroid resistance and paired kdr mutations in both urban and semi-urban sites at levels that are unprecedented for mainland Africa. The combination of target site and metabolic mechanisms is common in Ae. aegypti populations from other continents but is a worrying finding for African populations. However, organophosphate insecticides are still active against both larvae and adults of Ae. aegypti, providing useful insecticidal options for control and resistance management.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 525 Aedes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007439
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 03 Jun 2019 09:15
Last Modified: 07 Sep 2019 13:08
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/10942

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