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Status of insecticide resistance and its biochemical and molecular mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Afghanistan

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Safi, Noor Halim Zahid, Ahmadi, Abdul Ali, Nahzat, Sami, Warusavithana, Supriya, Safi, Naimullah, Valadan, Reza, Shemshadian, Atie, Sharifi, Marzieh, Enayati, Ahmadali and Hemingway, Janet ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3200-7173 (2019) 'Status of insecticide resistance and its biochemical and molecular mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Afghanistan'. Malaria Journal, Vol 18, Issue 1, e249.

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Abstract

Background
Insecticide resistance of Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in eastern Afghanistan, has been reported previously. This study describes the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of resistance to facilitate effective vector control and insecticide resistance management.

Methods
Mosquito larvae were collected from the provinces of Kunar, Laghman and Nangarhar from 2014 to 2017. The susceptibility of the reared 3–4 days old adults was tested with deltamethrin 0.05%, bendiocarb 0.1%, malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75% and DDT 4%. Cytochrome P450 content and general esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured in the three field populations and the results were compared with those of the laboratory susceptible An. stephensi Beech strain. Two separate allele-specific PCR assays were used to identify L1014, L1014F and L1014S mutations in the voltage gated sodium channel gene of An. stephensi. Probit analysis, ANOVA and Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were used to analyse bioassay, biochemical assay and gene frequency data respectively.

Results
The population of An. stephensi from Kunar was susceptible to bendiocarb, apart from this, all populations were resistant to all the other insecticides tested. The differences between all values for cytochrome P450s, general esterases, GSTs and AChE inhibition rates in the Kunar, Laghman and Nangarhar populations were statistically significant when compared to the Beech strain, excluding GST activities between Kunar and Beech due to the high standard deviation in Kunar. The three different sodium channel alleles [L1014 (wild type), L1014F (kdr west) and L1014S (kdr east)] were all segregated in the Afghan populations. The frequencies of kdr east mutation were 22.9%, 32.7% and 35% in Kunar, Laghman and Nangarhar populations respectively. Kdr west was at the lowest frequency of 4.44%.

Conclusions
Resistance to different groups of insecticides in the field populations of An. stephensi from Kunar, Laghman and Nangarhar Provinces of Afghanistan is caused by a range of metabolic and site insensitivity mechanisms, including esterases, cytochrome P450s and GSTs combined with AChE and sodium channel target site insensitivity. The intensity and frequency of these mechanisms are increasing in these populations, calling for urgent reorientation of vector control programmes and implementation of insecticide resistance management strategies.dr

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2884-x
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 21 Aug 2019 12:24
Last Modified: 22 Aug 2019 09:38
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/11463

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