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Spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato larvae in the urban environment of Yaoundé, Cameroon.

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Djamouko-Djonkam, Landre, Mounchili-Ndam, Souleman, Kala-Chouakeu, Nelly, Nana-Ndjangwo, Stella Mariette, Kopya, Edmond, Sonhafouo-Chiana, Nadége, Talipouo, Abdou, Ngadjeu, Carmene Sandra, Doumbe-Belisse, Patricia, Bamou, Roland, Toto, Jean Claude, Tchuinkam, Timoléon, Wondji, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0791-3673 and Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe (2019) 'Spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato larvae in the urban environment of Yaoundé, Cameroon.'. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Vol 8, Issue 1, p. 84.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND
The rapid and unplanned urbanization of African cities is considered to increase the risk of urban malaria transmission. The present study objective was to assess factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae in the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon.
METHODS
All water bodies were checked once every 2 months for the presence of mosquito larvae from March 2017 to May 2018 in 32 districts of Yaoundé. Physico-chemical characteristics including the size, depth, turbidity, pH, temperature, conductivity, sulfates, organophosphates, hydrogen peroxide (HO), conductivity, iron and calcium were recorded and analyzed according to anopheline larvae presence or absence. High resolution satellite images from landsat sentinel Enhanced Thematic Mapper were used for spatial mapping of both field and environmental variables. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify variables closely associated with anopheline larvae distribution.
RESULTS
A total of 18 696 aquatic habitats were checked and only 2942 sites (15.7%) contained anopheline larvae. A high number of sites with anopheline larvae (≥ 69%) presented late instar larvae (L3, L4 and pupae). Anopheline mosquito larvae were sampled from a variety of breeding sites including puddles (51.6%), tire prints (12.9%), wells (11.7%) and drains (11.3%). Bivariate logistic regression analyses associated anopheline larvae presence with the absence of predators, absence of algae, absence of vegetation and depth of less than 1 m. Conductivity, turbidity, organophosphates, HO and temperature were significantly high in breeding sites with anopheline larvae than in breeding sites without these larvae (P <  0.1). Anopheline species collected included An. coluzzii (91.1%) and An. gambiae s.s. (8.9%). GIS mapping indicated a heterogeneous distribution of anopheline breeding habitats in the city of Yaoundé. Land cover analysis indicated high variability of the city of Yaoundé's landscape.
CONCLUSIONS
The data confirms adaptation of An. gambiae s.l. to the urban domain in the city of Yaoundé and calls for urgent actions to improve malaria vector control.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WA Public Health > Water > WA 675 Water. Water supply. Sources
WA Public Health > Housing. Buildings. Public Facilities > WA 799 Public buildings
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0597-6
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 11 Oct 2019 14:30
Last Modified: 11 Oct 2019 14:30
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/12742

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