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Assessing the impact of the addition of pyriproxyfen on the durability of permethrin-treated bed nets in Burkina Faso: a compound-randomized controlled trial

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Toe, Kobié, Tangena, Julie-Anne, Morris, Marion, Solino, Joanna, Tchicaya, Emile, Traore, Alphonse, Ismail, Hanafy, Mass, James, Lissenden, Natalie ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6578-5537, Pinder, Margaret, Lindsay, Steve, Tiono, Alfred, Ranson, Hilar ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2332-8247 and Sagnon, N'Fale (2019) 'Assessing the impact of the addition of pyriproxyfen on the durability of permethrin-treated bed nets in Burkina Faso: a compound-randomized controlled trial'. Malaria Journal, Vol 18, Issue 383.

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Abstract

Background
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) treated with pyrethroids are the foundation of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Rising pyrethroid resistance in vectors, however, has driven the development of alternative net formulations. Here the durability of polyethylene nets with a novel combination of a pyrethroid, permethrin, and the insect juvenile hormone mimic, pyriproxyfen (PPF), compared to a standard permethrin LLIN, was assessed in rural Burkina Faso.

Methods
A compound-randomized controlled trial was completed in two villages. In one village 326 of the PPF-permethrin nets (Olyset Duo) and 327 standard LLINs (Olyset) were distributed to assess bioefficacy. In a second village, 170 PPF-permethrin nets and 376 LLINs were distributed to assess survivorship. Nets were followed at 6-monthly intervals for 3 years. Bioefficacy was assessed by exposing permethrin-susceptible and resistant Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquito strains to standard World Health Organization (WHO) cone and tunnel tests with impacts on fertility measured in the resistant strain. Insecticide content was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. LLIN survivorship was recorded with a questionnaire and assessed by comparing the physical integrity using the proportionate hole index (pHI).

Results
The PPF-permethrin net met WHO bioefficacy criteria (≥ 80% mortality or ≥ 95% knockdown) for the first 18 months, compared to 6 months for the standard LLIN. Mean mosquito mortality for PPF-permethrin nets, across all time points, was 8.6% (CI 2.6–14.6%) higher than the standard LLIN. Fertility rates were reduced after PPF-permethrin net exposure at 1-month post distribution, but not later. Permethrin content of both types of nets remained within the target range of 20 g/kg ± 25% for 242/248 nets tested. The pyriproxyfen content of PPF-permethrin nets declined by 54%, from 10.4 g/kg (CI 10.2–10.6) to 4.7 g/kg (CI 3.5–6.0, p < 0.001) over 36 months. Net survivorship was poor, with only 13% of PPF-permethrin nets and 12% of LLINs still present in the original household after 36 months. There was no difference in the fabric integrity or survivorship between the two net types.

Conclusion
The PPF-permethrin net, Olyset Duo, met or exceeded the performance of the WHO-recommended standard LLIN (Olyset) in the current study but both net types failed the 3-year WHO bioefficacy criteria.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-3018-1
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 04 Dec 2019 12:25
Last Modified: 04 Dec 2019 12:25
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/13245

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