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The role of windows of selection and windows of dominance in the evolution of insecticide resistance in human disease vectors

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South, Andrew, Lees, Rosemary ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4232-9125, Garrod, Gala, Carson, Jessica, Malone, David and Hastings, Ian ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1332-742X (2020) 'The role of windows of selection and windows of dominance in the evolution of insecticide resistance in human disease vectors'. Evolutionary Applications, Vol 13, Issue 4, pp. 738-751.

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Abstract

Persistent insecticides sprayed onto house walls, and incorporated into insecticide-treated bednets, provide long-acting, cost-effective control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria and leishmaniasis. The high concentrations that occur immediately post-deployment may kill both
resistant and susceptible insects. However, insecticide concentration, and therefore killing ability, declines in the months after deployment. As concentrations decline, resistant insects start to survive while susceptible insects are still killed. The period of time after deployment, within which mortality of resistant individuals is lower than that of susceptible ones, has been termed the ‘window of selection’ in other contexts. It is recognised as driving resistance in bacteria and malaria parasites, both of which are predominantly haploid. We argue that paying more attention to these mortality differences can help understand the evolution of insecticide resistance. Because insects are diploid, resistance encoded by single genes generates heterozygotes. This gives the potential for a narrower 'window of dominance', within the window of selection, where heterozygote mortality is lower than that of susceptible homozygotes. We explore the general properties of windows of selection and dominance in driving resistance. We quantify their likely effect using data from new laboratory experiments and published data from the laboratory and field. These windows can persist months or years after insecticide deployments. Differential mortalities of resistant, susceptible and heterozygous genotypes, after public-health deployments, constitute a major challenge to controlling resistance. Greater attention to mortality differences by genotype would inform strategies to reduce the evolution of resistance to existing and new insecticides.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 680 Tropical diseases (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1111/EVA.12897
Depositing User: Cathy Waldron
Date Deposited: 11 Dec 2019 11:13
Last Modified: 30 Mar 2020 15:19
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/13287

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