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Barrier bednets target malaria vectors and expand the range of usable insecticides.

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Murray, Gregory, Lissenden, Natalie ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6578-5537, Jones, Jeff, Voloshin, Vitaly, Toé, K Hyacinthe, Sherrard-Smith, Ellie, Foster, Geraldine ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9769-4349, Churcher, Thomas S, Parker, Josephine ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5780-6297, Towers, Catherine E, N'fale, Sagnon, Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M, Ranson, Hilary ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2332-8247, Towers, David and McCall, Philip ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0007-3985 (2019) 'Barrier bednets target malaria vectors and expand the range of usable insecticides.'. Nature Microbiology, Vol 5, Issue 1, pp. 40-47.

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Abstract

Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites occurs when nocturnal Anopheles mosquito vectors feed on human blood. In Africa, where malaria burden is highest, bednets treated with pyrethroid insecticide were highly effective in preventing mosquito bites and reducing transmission, and essential to achieving unprecedented reductions in malaria until 2015 (ref. ). Since then, progress has stalled, and with insecticidal bednets losing efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles vectors, methods that restore performance are urgently needed to eliminate any risk of malaria returning to the levels seen before their widespread use throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we show that the primary malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is targeted and killed by small insecticidal net barriers positioned above a standard bednet in a spatial region of high mosquito activity but zero contact with sleepers, opening the way for deploying many more insecticides on bednets than is currently possible. Tested against wild pyrethroid-resistant A. gambiae in Burkina Faso, pyrethroid bednets with organophosphate barriers achieved significantly higher killing rates than bednets alone. Treated barriers on untreated bednets were equally effective, without significant loss of personal protection. Mathematical modelling of transmission dynamics predicted reductions in clinical malaria incidence with barrier bednets that matched those of 'next-generation' nets recommended by the World Health Organization against resistant vectors. Mathematical models of mosquito-barrier interactions identified alternative barrier designs to increase performance. Barrier bednets that overcome insecticide resistance are feasible using existing insecticides and production technology, and early implementation of affordable vector control tools is a realistic prospect.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Letter
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Protozoa > QX 135 Plasmodia
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0607-2
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 07 Jan 2020 14:22
Last Modified: 02 Jun 2020 01:02
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/13472

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