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Comparison of immune responses to Loa loa stage-specific antigen extracts in Loa loa-exposed BALB/c mice upon clearance of infection

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Chunda, Valerine C., Ritter, Manuel, Bate, Ayukenchengamba, Gandjui, Narcisse V. T., Esum, Mathias E., Fombad, Fanny F., Njouendou, Abdel J., Ndongmo, Patrick W. C., Taylor, Mark J. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3396-9275, Hoerauf, Achim, Layland, Laura E., Turner, Joseph D. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2185-5476 and Wanji, Samuel (2020) 'Comparison of immune responses to Loa loa stage-specific antigen extracts in Loa loa-exposed BALB/c mice upon clearance of infection'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 13, Issue 1.

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Abstract

Background:
Different immune mechanisms are capable of killing developmental stages of filarial nematodes and these mechanisms are also likely to vary between the primary and a challenge infection. However, the lack of a detailed analysis of cytokine, chemokine and immunoglobulin levels in human loiasis is still evident. Therefore, detailed analysis of immune responses induced by the different developmental stages of Loa loa in immune-competent BALB/c mice will aid in the characterization of distinct immune responses that are important for the immunity against loiasis.

Methods:
Different developmental stages of L. loa were obtained from human peripheral blood (microfilariae, MF), the transmitting vector, Chrysops (larval stage 3, L3) and infected immune-deficient BALB/cRAG2γc−/− mice (L4, L5, adult worms). Groups of wildtype BALB/c mice were then injected with the isolated stages and after 42 days postinfection
(pi), systemic cytokine, chemokine and immunoglobulin levels were determined. These were then compared to L. loa-specific responses from in vitro re-stimulated splenocytes from individual mice. All parameters were determined using Luminex technology.

Results:
In a pilot study, BALB/c mice cleared the different life stages of L. loa within 42 days pi and systemic cytokine, chemokine and munoglobulin levels were equal between infected and naive mice. Nevertheless, L. loa-specific re-stimulation of splenocytes from mice infected with L5, MF or adult worms led to induction of Th2, Th17 and chemokine secretion patterns.

Conclusions:
This study shows that although host immunity remains comparable to naive mice, clearance of L. loa life-cycle development stages can induce immune cell memory leading to cytokine, chemokine and mmunoglobulins secretion patterns which might contribute to immunity and protection against reinfection.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > Antigens and Antibodies. Toxins and Antitoxins > QW 573 Antigens
QY Clinical Pathology > QY 4 General works
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-3921-x
Depositing User: Cathy Waldron
Date Deposited: 17 Feb 2020 11:05
Last Modified: 17 Feb 2020 11:30
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/13724

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