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A systematic review of alternative surveillance approaches for lymphatic filariasis in low prevalence settings: Implications for postvalidation settings

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Riches, Nicholas, Badia, Xavier, Mzilahowa, Themba and Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3330-7629 (2020) 'A systematic review of alternative surveillance approaches for lymphatic filariasis in low prevalence settings: Implications for postvalidation settings'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 14, Issue 5, e0008289.

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Abstract

Due to the success of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) many countries have either eliminated the disease as a public health problem or are scheduled to achieve this elimination status in the coming years. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend that the Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) is used routinely for post-mass drug administration (MDA) surveillance but it is considered to lack sensitivity in low prevalence settings and not be suitable for post-validation surveillance. Currently there is limited evidence to support programme managers on the design of appropriate alternative strategies to TAS that can be used for post-validation surveillance, as recommended by the WHO. We searched for human and mosquito LF surveillance studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2018 in countries which had either completed MDA or had been validated as having eliminated LF. Article screening and selection were independently conducted. 44 papers met the eligibility criteria, summarising evidence from 22 countries and comprising 83 methodologically distinct surveillance studies. No standardised approach was reported. The most common study type was community-based human testing (n = 42, 47.2%), followed by mosquito xenomonitoring (n = 23, 25.8%) and alternative (non-TAS) forms of school-based human testing (n = 19, 21.3%). Most studies were cross-sectional (n = 61, 73.5%) and used non-random sampling methods. 11 different human diagnostic tests were described. Results suggest that sensitivity of LF surveillance can be increased by incorporating newer human diagnostic tests (including antibody tests) and the use of mosquito xenomonitoring may be able to help identify and target areas of active transmission. Alternative sampling methods including the addition of adults to routine surveillance methods and consideration of community-based sampling could also increase sensitivity. The evidence base to support post-validation surveillance remains limited. Further research is needed on the diagnostic performance and cost-effectiveness of new diagnostic tests and methodologies to guide policy decisions and must be conducted in a range of countries. Evidence on how to integrate surveillance within other routine healthcare processes is also important to support the ongoing sustainability of LF surveillance.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: W General Medicine. Health Professions > W 26.5 Informatics. Health informatics
QX Parasitology > QX 4 General works
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Education
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008289
Depositing User: Claire McIntyre
Date Deposited: 14 May 2020 13:06
Last Modified: 15 May 2020 09:26
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/14439

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