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Comparison of chlorproguanil-dapsone with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young African children: double-blind randomised controlled trial

Alloueche, A., Bailey, Wendi, Barton, S., Bwika, J., Chimpeni, P., Falade, C. O., Fehintola, F. A., Horton, J., Jaffar, S., Kanyok, T., Kremsner, P. G., Kublin, J. G., Lang, T., Missinou, M. A., Mkandala, C., Oduola, A. M. J., Premji, Z., Robertson, L., Sowunmi, A., Ward, Stephen ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2331-3192 and Winstanley, P. A. (2004) 'Comparison of chlorproguanil-dapsone with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young African children: double-blind randomised controlled trial'. Lancet, Vol 363, Issue 9424, pp. 1843-1848.

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Abstract

Background
Increasing resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is leading to a decline in its effectiveness. We aimed to assess the safety profile of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), and to compare the safety and efficacy of this drug with that of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
Methods
We undertook a double-blind, randomised trial in 1850 consecutively recruited children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, pooling data from five African countries. Analyses were based on all randomised patients with available data.
Findings
CD was significantly more efficacious than SP (odds ratio 3.1 [95% CI 2.0-4.8]); 1313 patients (96%) given CD and 306 (89%) given SP achieved acceptable clinical and parasitological response by day 14. Adverse events were reported in 46% and 50% of patients randomised to CD and SP, respectively (treatment difference -4.4%, [95% CI -10.1 to 1.3]). Haemoglobin in the CD group was significantly lower than in the SP group at day 7, a difference of -4 g/L (95% CI -6 to -2). Mean day 14 haemoglobin (measured only for the small number of patients whose day 7 data caused concern) was 94 g/L (92-96) and 97 g/L (92-102) after CD and SP, respectively. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients on CD had greater odds than those on SP of having a fall of 20 g/dL or more in haemoglobin when baseline temperature was high. Methaemoglobinaemia was seen in the CD group (n=320, mean 0.4% [95% CI 0.4-0.4]) before treatment, 4.2% (95% CI 3.8-4.6) (n=301) at day 3, and 0.6% (0.6-0.7( (n=300) at day 7).
Interpretation
CD had greater efficacy than SP in Africa and was well tolerated. Haematological adverse effects were more common with CD than with SP and were reversible. CD is a useful alternative where SP is failing due to resistance.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: elimination half-life plasmodium-falciparum selective pressure glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase resistance artesunate sequence combinations chloroquine evolution
Subjects: QV Pharmacology > Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antineoplastic Agents > QV 256 Antimalarials
QV Pharmacology > Drug Standardization. Pharmacognosy. Medicinal Plants > QV 771 Standardization and evaluation of drugs
QW Microbiology and Immunology > QW 45 Microbial drug resistance. General or not elsewhere classified.
QX Parasitology > Protozoa > QX 135 Plasmodia
WB Practice of Medicine > Therapeutics > WB 330 Drug therapy
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Clinical Group
Groups (2002 - 2012) > Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16350-2
Depositing User: Sarah Lewis-Newton
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2012 10:47
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:03
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/2191

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