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Biomass fuel use and indoor air pollution in homes in Malawi

Fullerton, Duncan, Semple, S, Kalambo, F, Suseno, A, Malamba, R, Henderson, G, Ayres, J and Gordon, Stephen (2009) 'Biomass fuel use and indoor air pollution in homes in Malawi'. British Medical Journal (BMJ), Vol 66, pp. 777-783.

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Abstract

Background: Air pollution from biomass fuels in Africa is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity both in adults and children. The work describes the nature and quantity of smoke exposure from biomass fuel in Malawian homes.

Methods: Markers of indoor air quality were measured in 62 homes (31 rural and 31 urban) over a typical 24 h period. Four different devices were used (one gravimetric device, two photometric devices and a carbon monoxide (HOBO) monitor. Gravimetric samples were analysed for transition metal content. Data on cooking and lighting fuel type together with information on indicators of socioeconomic status were collected by questionnaire.

Results: Respirable dust levels in both the urban and rural environment were high with the mean (SD) 24 h average levels being 226 μg/m3 (206 μg/m3). Data from real-time instruments indicated respirable dust concentrations were >250 μg/m3 for >1 h per day in 52% of rural homes and 17% of urban homes. Average carbon monoxide levels were significantly higher in urban compared with rural homes (6.14 ppm vs 1.87 ppm; p<0.001). The transition metal content of the smoke was low, with no significant difference found between urban and rural homes.

Conclusions: Indoor air pollution levels in Malawian homes are high. Further investigation is justified because the levels that we have demonstrated are hazardous and are likely to be damaging to health. Interventions should be sought to reduce exposure to concentrations less harmful to health.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QT Physiology > Human Physiology > QT 140 Environmental exposure. Physiological adaptation
QT Physiology > Physiology. Hygiene > QT 230 Lighting. Air. Sunlight. Living space
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WA Public Health > Sanitation. Environmental Control > General Sanitation and Environmental Control > WA 670 General works
WD Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin, etc > Disorders and Injuries of Environmental Origin > WD 600 General works
WF Respiratory System > WF 140 Diseases of the respiratory system (General)
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Clinical Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2008.045013
Depositing User: Users 379 not found.
Date Deposited: 08 Oct 2012 13:41
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:05
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/3044

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