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Use of purified protein derivative to assess the risk of infection in children in close contact with adults with tuberculosis in a population with high Calmette-Guerin bacillus coverage

Almeida, L. M. D., Barbieri, M. A., Da Paixao, A. C. and Cuevas, Luis ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6581-0587 (2001) 'Use of purified protein derivative to assess the risk of infection in children in close contact with adults with tuberculosis in a population with high Calmette-Guerin bacillus coverage'. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol 20, Issue 11, pp. 1061-1065.

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Abstract

Setting.
Household contacts < 15 years of age of adults with tuberculosis (TB) attending a reference center in Aracaju, Sergipe, Northeast Brazil.
Objective.
To assess the use of purified protein derivative (PPD) and frequency of infection in children with high Calmette-Guerin bacillus (BCG) coverage who were recently exposed to TB.
Design.
Cross-sectional study of 141 exposed household contacts < 15 years of age and 506 nonexposed neighborhood controls. Children were examined and assessed for degree of exposure to index cases, BCG vaccination and sear and were tested with PPD.
Results.
Exposed children were younger and less up to date in their vaccination schedule than controls (P < 0.05). BCG had been given to 95.6% of exposed children and 97.4% of controls, but only 80.9% of exposed vs. 88.5% of controls had a sear (P < 0.05). Scar sizes of exposed children were smaller (medians, 4.5 and 7 mm, respectively; P < 0.05). Children had lower weight for age z scores and height than the National Center for Health Statistics standards. Exposed children had lower weight for age z scores than controls (P < 0.05). Sixty-seven (47.5%) exposed children and 18 (3.6%) controls had PPD readings of > 10 mm. Positivity and induration sizes increased with age, although this was significant only in the controls. The presence of a BCG scar was not associated with having a positive PPD. The degree of exposure was an important factor for PPD positivity; 66 (60.6%) of the 109 children with close exposure were positive compared with 1 (3.1%) of 32 with less intimate exposure. PPD indurations among close contacts were also larger than those with restricted exposure and controls (16.3, 11 and 9.4 mm, respectively; P <0.05). PPD positivity was associated with the quantification of acid-fast bacilli in the adult; 38.5% of contacts with adults with sputum with (+) were positive, compared with 42.3% of those with (+ +) and 58.4% with (+ + +) (P < 0.05). Conclusion. PPD is a useful test to identify children infected with TB independently of whether they had received BCG or not. Children exposed to adults with TB are at high risk of infection. The risk of infection is associated with the intimacy of contact and the number of bacilli expectorated in sputum.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 205 Epidemiology
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 250 Immunological aspects
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 415 Tuberculosis in childhood
Faculty: Department: Pre 2002
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200111000-00011
Depositing User: Martin Chapman
Date Deposited: 25 Mar 2014 10:36
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:05
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/3099

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