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Transfusion-transmitted Malaria in Ghana.

Owusu-Ofori, Alex K., Betson, Martha, Parry, Christopher M, Stothard, Russell ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9370-3420 and Bates, Imelda ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0862-8199 (2013) 'Transfusion-transmitted Malaria in Ghana.'. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol 56, Issue 12, pp. 1735-1741.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND
In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in blood donors varies from 0.6% to 50%. Although the burden of TTM in malaria-endemic countries is unknown, it is recommended that all donated blood is screened for malaria parasites. This study aimed to establish the incidence of TTM and identify a suitable screening test.
METHODS
Pregnant women, children, and immunocompromised malaria-negative transfusion recipients in a teaching hospital in Ghana were recruited over the course of 1 year. Parasites detected in recipients within 14 days of the transfusion were genotyped and compared to parasites in the transfused blood. The presence of genotypically identical parasites in the recipient and the transfused blood confirmed transfusion-transmitted malaria. Four malaria screening tests were compared to assess their usefulness in the context of African blood banks.
RESULTS

Of the 50 patients who received transfusions that were positive for Plasmodium falciparum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7 recipients developed PCR-detectable parasitemia. In only 1 of the 50 recipients (2%) was the parasite identical to that in the transfused blood. The prevalence of P. falciparum malaria in transfused blood was 4.7% (21/445) by microscopy, 13.7% (60/440) by rapid diagnostic test, 18% (78/436) by PCR, and 22.2% (98/442) by enzyme immunoassay.
CONCLUSIONS
Although malaria parasites are commonly detected in blood donors in malaria-endemic areas, transfusion-transmitted malaria occurs infrequently. Policies recommend screening blood donors for malaria, but none of the commonly used methods is sufficiently sensitive to be used by blood banks in malaria-endemic countries.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Protozoa > QX 135 Plasmodia
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WB Practice of Medicine > Therapeutics > WB 356 Blood transfusion
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WH Hemic and Lymphatic Systems > Hematologic Diseases. Immunologic Factors. Blood Banks > WH 460 Blood bank procedures
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > International Public Health Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit130
Depositing User: Katharyn Robinson
Date Deposited: 12 Dec 2013 11:40
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2018 14:39
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/3513

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