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Insecticide-treated nets for preventing malaria in pregnancy

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Gamble, Carrol L, Ekwaru, John Paul, terKuile, Feiko ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3663-5617 and Gamble, Carrol L (2006) 'Insecticide-treated nets for preventing malaria in pregnancy'. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2, CD003755.

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Abstract

Background
Malaria in pregnancy is associated with adverse consequences for mother and fetus. Protection with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during pregnancy is widely advocated, but evidence of their benefit has been inconsistent.

Objectives
To compare the impact of ITNs with no nets or untreated nets on preventing malaria in pregnancy.

Search methods
We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (February 2009), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2009), EMBASE (1974 to February 2009), LILACS (1982 to February 2009), and reference lists. We also contacted researchers working in the field.

Selection criteria
Individual and cluster randomized controlled trials of ITNs in pregnant women.

Data collection and analysis
Three authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the trials and extracted data. Data were combined using the generic inverse variance method.

Main results
Six randomized controlled trials were identified, five of which met the inclusion criteria: four trials from sub-Saharan Africa compared ITNs with no nets, and one trial from Asia compared ITNs with untreated nets. Two trials randomized individual women and three trials randomized communities. In Africa, ITNs, compared with no nets, reduced placental malaria in all pregnancies (risk ratio (RR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 0.98). They also reduced low birthweight (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.98) and fetal loss in the first to fourth pregnancy (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.97), but not in women with more than four previous pregnancies. For anaemia and clinical malaria, results tended to favour ITNs, but the effects were not significant. In Thailand, one trial randomizing individuals to ITNs or untreated nets showed a significant reduction in anaemia and fetal loss in all pregnancies but not for clinical malaria or low birthweight.

Authors' conclusions
ITNs have a beneficial impact on pregnancy outcome in malaria-endemic regions of Africa when used by communities or by individual women. No further trials of ITNs in pregnancy are required in sub-Saharan Africa. Further evaluation of the potential impact of ITNs is required in areas with less intense and Plasmodium vivax transmission in Asia and Latin America.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Assessed as up-to-date: 12 FEB 2009. This review is published as a Cochrane Review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2, CD003755. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to comments and criticisms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the Review.
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
WQ Obstetrics > Pregnancy Complications > WQ 256 Infectious diseases
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003755.pub2
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Martin Chapman
Date Deposited: 09 Jun 2014 10:57
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2018 14:46
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/3760

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