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Explaining the Host-Finding Behavior of Blood-Sucking Insects: Computerized Simulation of the Effects of Habitat Geometry on Tsetse Fly Movement

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Vale, Glyn A., Hargrove, John W., Solano, Philippe, Courtin, Fabrice, Rayaisse, Jean-Baptiste, Lehane, Mike, Esterhuizen, Johan, Tirados, Inaki ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9771-4880 and Torr, Steve ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9550-4030 (2014) 'Explaining the Host-Finding Behavior of Blood-Sucking Insects: Computerized Simulation of the Effects of Habitat Geometry on Tsetse Fly Movement'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 8, Issue 6, e2901.

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Abstract

Background

Male and female tsetse flies feed exclusively on vertebrate blood. While doing so they can transmit the
diseases of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic stock. Knowledge of the host-orientated behavior of tsetse is important in designing bait methods of sampling and controlling the flies, and in understanding the epidemiology of the diseases. For this we must explain several puzzling distinctions in the behavior of the different sexes and species of tsetse. For example, why is it that the species occupying savannahs, unlike those of riverine habitats, appear strongly responsive to odor, rely mainly on large hosts, are repelled by humans, and are often shy of alighting on baits?

Methodology/Principal Findings

A deterministic model that simulated fly mobility and host-finding success suggested
that the behavioral distinctions between riverine, savannah and forest tsetse are due largely to habitat size and shape, and the extent to which dense bushes limit occupiable space within the habitats. These factors seemed effective primarily because they affect the daily displacement of tsetse, reducing it by up to ,70%. Sex differences in behavior are explicable by females being larger and more mobile than males.

Conclusion/Significance

Habitat geometry and fly size provide a framework that can unify much of the behavior of all sexes and species of tsetse everywhere. The general expectation is that relatively immobile insects in restricted habitats tend to be less responsive to host odors and more catholic in their diet. This has profound implications for the optimization of bait technology for tsetse, mosquitoes, black flies and tabanids, and for the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 505 Diptera
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WB Practice of Medicine > Medical Climatology > WB 700 Medical climatology. Geography of disease
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002901
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 23 Jun 2014 15:59
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:07
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/3768

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