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Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever (Review)

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Anwar, Elspeth, Goldberg, Elad, Fraser, Abigail, Acosta, Camilo J, Paul, Mical and Leibovici, Leonard (2014) 'Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever (Review)'. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1, CD001261.

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Abstract

Background
Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia. Two typhoid vaccines are commercially available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral), but neither is used routinely. Other vaccines, such as a new, modified, conjugated Vi vaccine called Vi-rEPA, are in development.

Objectives
To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of vaccines used to prevent typhoid fever.

Search methods
In June 2013, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and mRCT. We also searched relevant conference proceedings up to 2013 and scanned the reference lists of all included trials.

Selection criteria
Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing typhoid fever vaccines with other typhoid fever vaccines or with an inactive agent (placebo or vaccine for a different disease).

Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria and extracted data. We computed vaccine efficacy per year of follow-up and cumulative three-year efficacy, stratifying for vaccine type and dose. The outcome addressed was typhoid fever, defined as isolation of Salmonella typhi in blood. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and efficacy (1-RR as a percentage) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Main results
In total, 18 RCTs were included in this review; 12 evaluated efficacy (Ty21a: five trials; Vi polysaccharide: six trials; Vi-rEPA: one trial), and 11 reported on adverse events.

Ty21a vaccine (oral vaccine, three doses)
A three-dose schedule of Ty21a vaccine prevents around one-third to one-half of typhoid cases in the first two years after vaccination (Year 1: 35%, 95% CI 8% to 54%; Year 2: 58%, 95% CI 40% to 71%; one trial, 20,543 participants; moderate quality evidence; data taken from a single trial conducted in Indonesia in the 1980s). No benefit was detected in the third year after vaccination. Four additional cluster-RCTs have been conducted, but the study authors did not adjust for clustering.
Compared with placebo, this vaccine was not associated with more participants with vomiting, diarrhoea, nausea or abdominal pain (four trials, 2066 participants; moderate quality evidence) headache, or rash (two trials, 1190 participants; moderate quality evidence); however, fever (four trials, 2066 participants; moderate quality evidence) was more common in the vaccine group.

Vi polysaccharide vaccine (injection, one dose)
A single dose of Vi polysaccharide vaccine prevents around two-thirds of typhoid cases in the first year after vaccination (Year 1: 69%, 95% CI 63% to 74%; three trials, 99,979 participants; high quality evidence). In Year 2, the trial results were more variable, with the vaccine preventing between 45% and 69% of typhoid cases (Year 2: 59%, 95% CI 45% to 69%; four trials, 194,969 participants; moderate quality evidence). The three-year cumulative efficacy of the vaccine is around 55% (95% CI 30% to 70%; 11,384 participants, one trial; moderate quality evidence). These data are taken from a single trial in South Africa in the 1980s.
Compared with placebo, this vaccine was not associated with more participants with fever (four trials, 133,038 participants; moderate quality evidence) or erythema (three trials, 132,261 participants; low quality evidence); however, swelling (three trials, 1767 participants; moderate quality evidence) and pain at the injection site (one trial, 667 participants; moderate quality evidence) were more common in the vaccine group.

Vi-rEPA vaccine (two doses)
Administration of two doses of the Vi-rEPA vaccine prevents between 50% and 96% of typhoid cases during the first two years after vaccination (Year 1: 94%, 95% CI 75% to 99%; Year 2: 87%, 95% CI 56% to 96%; one trial, 12,008 participants; moderate quality evidence). These data are taken from a single trial with children 2 to 5 years of age conducted in Vietnam.
Compared with placebo, the first and second doses of this vaccine were not associated with increased risk of adverse events. The first dose of this vaccine was not associated with fever (2 studies, 12,209 participants; low quality evidence), erythema (two trials, 12,209 participants; moderate quality evidence) or swelling at the injection site (two trials, 12,209 participants; moderate quality evidence). The second dose of this vaccine was not associated with fever (two trials, 11,286 participants; low quality evidence), erythema (two trials, 11,286 participants; moderate quality evidence) and swelling at the injection site (two trials, 11,286 participants; moderate quality evidence).

Authors' conclusions
The licensed Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide vaccines are efficacious. The new and unlicensed Vi-rEPA vaccine is as efficacious and may confer longer immunity.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This review is published as a Cochrane Review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1, CD001261. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to comments and criticisms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the Review.
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > Immunotherapy and Hypersensitivity > QW 805 Vaccines. Antitoxins. Toxoids
WC Communicable Diseases > Infection. Bacterial Infections > Enteric Infections > WC 270 Typhoid fever
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001261.pub3
Depositing User: Martin Chapman
Date Deposited: 24 Nov 2014 16:47
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:07
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/4525

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