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Severity of Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Is Influenced by Previous Exposure to Sandfly Bites in Saudi Arabia

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Mondragon-Shem, Karina, Al-Salem, Waleed, Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3330-7629, Abdeladhim, Maha, Al-Zahrani, Mohammed H., Valenzuela, Jesus G. and Acosta Serrano, Alvaro ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2576-7959 (2015) 'Severity of Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Is Influenced by Previous Exposure to Sandfly Bites in Saudi Arabia'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 9, Issue 2, e0003449.

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Abstract

Background

The sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi is the vector of Leishmania major, the main causative agent of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Saudi Arabia. Sandflies inject saliva while feeding and the salivary protein PpSP32 was previously shown to be a biomarker for bite exposure. Here we used recombinant PpSP32 to evaluate human exposure to Ph. papatasi bites, and study the association between antibody response to saliva and CL in endemic areas in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology/Principal Findings

In this observational study, anti-PpSP32 antibodies, as indicators of exposure to sandfly bites, were measured in sera from healthy individuals and patients from endemic regions in Saudi Arabia with active and cured CL. Ph. papatasi was identified as the primary CL vector in the study area. Anti-PpSP32 antibody levels were significantly higher in CL patients presenting active infections from all geographical regions compared to CL cured and healthy individuals. Furthermore, higher anti-PpSP32 antibody levels correlated with the prevalence and type of CL lesions (nodular vs. papular) observed in patients, especially non-local construction workers.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest a possible correlation between the type of immunity generated by the exposure to sandfly bites and disease outcome.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 505 Diptera
QX Parasitology > Protozoa > QX 70 Mastigophora. (e.g., Giardia. Trichomonas. Trypanosoma. Leishmania)
WR Dermatology > Parasitic Skin Diseases > WR 350 Tropical diseases of the skin. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003449
Depositing User: Martin Chapman
Date Deposited: 05 Feb 2015 15:30
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2019 15:29
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/4847

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