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The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system

Vonk, F. J., Casewell, Nicholas ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8035-4719, Henkel, C. V., Heimberg, A. M., Jansen, H. J., McCleary, R. J. R., Kerkkamp, H. M. E., Vos, R. A., Guerreiro, I., Calvete, J. J., Wuster, W., Woods, A. E., Logan, J. M., Harrison, Robert, Castoe, T. A., de Koning, A. P. J., Pollock, D. D., Yandell, M., Calderon, D., Renjifo, C., Currier, Rachel B., Salgado, D., Pla, D., Sanz, L., Hyder, A. S., Ribeiro, J. M. C., Arntzen, J. W., van den Thillart, G. E. E. J. M., Boetzer, M., Pirovano, W., Dirks, R. P., Spaink, H. P., Duboule, D., McGlinn, E., Kini, R. M. and Richardson, M. K. (2013) 'The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system'. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol 110, Issue 51, pp. 20651-20656.

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Abstract

Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from other vertebrates. In contrast to the platypus, the only other venomous vertebrate with a sequenced genome, we find that snake toxin genes evolve through several distinct co-option mechanisms and exhibit surprisingly variable levels of gene duplication and directional selection that correlate with their functional importance in prey capture. The enigmatic accessory venom gland shows a very different pattern of toxin gene expression from the main venom gland and seems to have recruited toxin-like lectin genes repeatedly for new nontoxic functions. In addition, tissue-specific microRNA analyses suggested the co-option of core genetic regulatory components of the venom secretory system from a pancreatic origin. Although the king cobra is limbless, we recovered coding sequences for all Hox genes involved in amniote limb development, with the exception of Hoxd12. Our results provide a unique view of the origin and evolution of snake venom and reveal multiple genome-level adaptive responses to natural selection in this complex biological weapon system. More generally, they provide insight into mechanisms of protein evolution under strong selection.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QU Biochemistry > Genetics > QU 460 Genomics. Proteomics
QU Biochemistry > Genetics > QU 500 Genetic phenomena
WD Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin, etc > Animal Poisons > WD 410 Reptiles
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1314702110
Depositing User: Martin Chapman
Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2015 12:30
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:08
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/4896

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