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The Fasciola hepatica genome: gene duplication and polymorphism reveals adaptation to the host environment and the capacity for rapid evolution.

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Cwiklinski, Krystyna, Dalton, John Pius, Dufresne, Philippe J, LaCourse, James ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9261-7136, Williams, Diana Jl, Hodgkinson, Jane and Paterson, Steve (2015) 'The Fasciola hepatica genome: gene duplication and polymorphism reveals adaptation to the host environment and the capacity for rapid evolution.'. Genome Biology, Vol 16, e71.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a major pathogen of livestock worldwide, causing huge economic losses to agriculture, as well as 2.4 million human infections annually.

RESULTS

Here we provide a draft genome for F. hepatica, which we find to be among the largest known pathogen genomes at 1.3 Gb. This size cannot be explained by genome duplication or expansion of a single repeat element, and remains a paradox given the burden it may impose on egg production necessary to transmit infection. Despite the potential for inbreeding by facultative self-fertilisation, substantial levels of polymorphism were found, which highlights the evolutionary potential for rapid adaptation to changes in host availability, climate change or to drug or vaccine interventions. Non-synonymous polymorphisms were elevated in genes shared with parasitic taxa, which may be particularly relevant for the ability of the parasite to adapt to a broad range of definitive mammalian and intermediate molluscan hosts. Large-scale transcriptional changes, particularly within expanded protease and tubulin families, were found as the parasite migrated from the gut, across the peritoneum and through the liver to mature in the bile ducts. We identify novel members of anti-oxidant and detoxification pathways and defined their differential expression through infection, which may explain the stage-specific efficacy of different anthelmintic drugs.

CONCLUSIONS

The genome analysis described here provides new insights into the evolution of this important pathogen, its adaptation to the host environment and external selection pressures. This analysis also provides a platform for research into novel drugs and vaccines.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://genomebiology.com/2015/16/1/71
Subjects: QU Biochemistry > Genetics > QU 460 Genomics. Proteomics
QU Biochemistry > Genetics > QU 475 Genetic processes
QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 365 Fasciola
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-015-0632-2
Depositing User: Mary Creegan
Date Deposited: 01 Sep 2015 08:47
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:10
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/5276

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