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Rise of multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus in Malawi: a major concern for malaria vector control

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Riveron, Jacob ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5395-767X, Chiumia, Martin, Menze, Benjamin, Barnes, Kayla, Irving, Helen, Ibrahim, SulaimanSadi, Weedall, Gareth D., Mzilahowa, Themba and Wondji, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0791-3673 (2015) 'Rise of multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus in Malawi: a major concern for malaria vector control'. Malaria Journal, Vol 14, Issue 1.

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Abstract

Background: Deciphering the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is crucial for successful vector control. This study reports an increase of resistance intensity and a rise of multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus in Malawi leading to reduced bed net efficacy.

Methods: Anopheles funestus group mosquitoes were collected in southern Malawi and the species composition, Plasmodium infection rate, susceptibility to insecticides and molecular bases of the resistance were analysed.

Results: Mosquito collection revealed a predominance of An. funestus group mosquitoes with a high hybrid rate
(12.2 %) suggesting extensive species hybridization. An. funestus sensu stricto was the main Plasmodium vector (4.8 % infection). Consistently high levels of resistance to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides were recorded and had increased between 2009 and 2014. Furthermore, the 2014 collection exhibited multiple insecticide resistance, notably
to DDT, contrary to 2009. Increased pyrethroid resistance correlates with reduced efficacy of bed nets (<5 % mortality by Olyset® net), which can compromise control efforts. This change in resistance dynamics is mirrored by prevalent resistance mechanisms, firstly with increased over-expression of key pyrethroid resistance genes (CYP6Pa/b and
CYP6M7) in 2014 and secondly, detection of the A296S-RDL dieldrin resistance mutation for the first time. However, the L119F-GSTe2 and kdr mutations were absent.

Conclusions: Such increased resistance levels and rise of multiple resistance highlight the need to rapidly implement resistance management strategies to preserve the effectiveness of existing insecticide-based control interventions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/14/1/344
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0877-y
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 13 Nov 2015 15:45
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2019 15:47
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/5400

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