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Pharmacokinetics of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults in Malawi

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Oosterhout, J J van, Dzinjalamala, F K, Dimba, A, Waterhouse, David, Davies, G, Zijlstra, E E, Molyneux, Malcolm E, Molyneux, E M and Ward, Steve ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2331-3192 (2015) 'Pharmacokinetics of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults in Malawi'. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol 59, Issue 10, pp. 6175-6180.

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Abstract

Limited data address the impact of HIV co-infection on the pharmacokinetics of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Sub-Saharan Africa. 47 Malawian adults underwent rich pharmacokinetic sampling at 0-0.5-1-2-3-4-6-8 and 24 hours post-dose. 51% were male; mean age was 34 years. 65% were HIV-positive with a mean CD4 count of 268 cells/μL. Anti-tuberculosis drugs were administered as fixed-dose combinations (rifampicin150mg/isoniazid75mg/pyrazinamide400mg/ethambutol275mg) according to recommended weight bands. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (rifampicin and pyrazinamide) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (isoniazid and ethambutol). Data were analysed by non-compartmental methods and analysis of variance of log-transformed summary parameters. Pharmacokinetic parameters were: rifampicin Cmax 4.129 (2.474-5.596)μg/mL, AUC0-24 21.32 (13.57-28.60)μg/mL*h, half-life 2.45 (1.86-3.08)h; isoniazid Cmax 3.97 (2.979-4.544)μg/mL, AUC0-24 22.5 (14.75-34.59)μg/mL*h, half-life 3.93 (3.18-4.73)h.; pyrazinamide Cmax 34.21 (30.00-41.60)μg/mL, AUC0-24 386.6 (320.0-463.7)μg/mL*h, half-life 6.821 (5.71-8.042)h; ethambutol Cmax 2.278 (1.694-3.098)μg/mL, AUC0-24 20.41 (16.18-26.27)μg/mL*h, half-life 7.507 (6.517-8.696)h. Isoniazid PK data analysis suggested that around two-thirds were slow acetylators. Dose, weight and weight-adjusted dose were not significant predictors of PK exposure probably due to weight-banded dosing. In this first pharmacokinetic study of tuberculosis drugs in Malawian adults, measures of pharmacokinetic exposure were comparable with other studies for all first line drugs except for rifampicin, for which Cmax and AUC0-24 were notably lower. Contrary to some earlier observations, HIV status did not significantly affect AUC of any of the drugs. Increasing the dose of rifampicin could be beneficial in African adults, irrespective of HIV status. Current co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with an increase in half-life of isoniazid of 41% (p=0.022). Possible competitive interactions between isoniazid and sulphamethoxazole mediated by the N-acetyltransferase pathway should therefore be explored further.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QV Pharmacology > QV 38 Drug action.
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections > WC 503 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV infections
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 200 Tuberculosis (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01193-15
Depositing User: Jessica Jones
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2016 10:51
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:11
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/5482

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