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Entomological aspects and the role of human behaviour in malaria transmission in a highland region of the Republic of Yemen

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Al-Eryani, Samira M. A., Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3330-7629, Harbach, Ralph E., Briscoe, Andrew G., Barnish, Guy, Azazy, Ahmed and McCall, Philip ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0007-3985 (2016) 'Entomological aspects and the role of human behaviour in malaria transmission in a highland region of the Republic of Yemen'. Malaria Journal, Vol 15, Issue 130.

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Abstract

Background:
The Republic of Yemen has the highest incidence of malaria in the Arabian Peninsula, yet little is known of its vectors or transmission dynamics.

Methods:
A 24-month study of the vectors and related epidemiological aspects of malaria transmission was conducted in two villages in the Taiz region in 2004–2005.

Results:
Cross-sectional blood film surveys recorded an overall malaria infection rate of 15.3 % (250/1638), with highest rates exceeding 30 % in one village in May and December 2005. With one exception, Plasmodium malariae, all infections were P. falciparum. Seven Anopheles species were identified among 3407 anophelines collected indoors using light traps (LT) and pyrethrum knockdown catches (PKD): Anopheles arabiensis (86.9 %), An. sergentii (9 %), An. azaniae, An. dthali, An. pretoriensis, An. coustani and An. algeriensis. Sequences for the standard barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene confirmed the presence of two morphological forms of An. azaniae, the typical form and a previously unrecognized form not immediately identifiable as An. azaniae. ELISA detected Plasmodium sporozoites in 0.9 % of 2921 An. arabiensis (23 P. falciparum, two P. vivax) confirming this species as the primary malaria vector in Yemen. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites were detected in An. sergentii (2/295) and a single female of An. algeriensis, incriminating both species as malaria vectors for the first time in Yemen. A vector in both wet and dry seasons, An. arabiensis was predominantly anthropophilic (human blood index = 0.86) with an entomological inoculation rate of 1.58 infective bites/person/year. Anopheles sergentii fed on cattle (67.3 %) and humans (48.3; 20.7 % mixed both species), but only 14.7 % were found in PKDs, indicating predominantly exophilic behaviour. A GIS analysis of geographic and socio-economic parameters revealed that An. arabiensis were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in houses with televisions, most likely due to the popular evening habit of viewing television collectively in houses with open doors and windows.

Conclusions:
The predominantly indoor human biting vectors recorded in this study could be targeted effectively with LLINs, indoor residual spraying and/or insecticide-treated window/door curtains reinforced by education to instil a perception that effective and affordable malaria prevention is achievable

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 755 Epidemiology
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-016-1179-8
Depositing User: Samantha Sheldrake
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2016 09:26
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2019 10:55
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/5722

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