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Influence of the agrochemicals used for rice and vegetable cultivation on insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in southern Côte d’Ivoire

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Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou S, Fodjo, Behi K, Fokou, Gilbert, Allassane, Ouattara F, Koudou, Benjamin, David, Philippe, Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe, Ranson, Hilary ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2332-8247 and Bonfoh, Bassirou (2016) 'Influence of the agrochemicals used for rice and vegetable cultivation on insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in southern Côte d’Ivoire'. Malaria Journal, Vol 15, e426.

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Abstract

Background
Vector control can contribute to the development of resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors. As the swamps and wetlands used for some agricultural activities constitute productive breeding sites for many mosquito species, agricultural pest control may increase the selection pressure for insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Understanding the use of agrochemicals by farmers is important to plan and initiate effective integrated pest and vector management interventions.

Methods
A knowledge–attitude–practice study, using questionnaires, was undertaken with 102 rice farmers in Tiassalé and 106 vegetable farmers in Dabou (South Côte d’Ivoire) in order to generate information on pesticide usage. In addition, insecticide susceptibility bioassays were conducted using adult mosquitoes obtained from larvae collected within farms, and the persistence of agricultural pesticides in the farming environment, including sediment and mosquito breeding site water, was investigated by HPLC.

Results
Herbicides and insecticides appeared to be the most frequently used pesticides for both crops. Amino phosphonates (mostly glyphosate) represented the most used herbicides (45 % for rice up to 89 % for vegetables). Pyrethroids appeared to be the most used insecticides (accounting for 90 % of all the insecticide use reported). Approximately 75 % of respondents had not been to school and do not understand product labels. Only about 45 % of farmers respect the recommended pesticide dosage and about 10–15 % of pesticides used for rice and vegetable, respectively, are not recommended for these crops. As per WHO criteria, the mosquito local populations from the two localities were resistant to three of the four insecticides tested, as mortalities were less than 35 % for deltamethrin, DDT and bendiocarb. Higher susceptibility was observed for malathion, although the population was considered resistant in Dabou (80 % mortality) and susceptible in Tiassalé (98 % mortality). With the exception of glyphosate, residues from each of six chemicals tested for were detected in each of the sites visited in the two localities.

Conclusion
The study describes the use of insecticides and herbicides on crops and highlights the importance of considering agriculture practices when attempting to manage resistance in malaria vectors. Inter-sectoral collaboration between agriculture and public health is required to develop efficient integrated pest and vector management interventions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12936-016-1481-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-016-1481-5
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 30 Aug 2016 16:07
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:13
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6088

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