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Respiratory virus-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and viral clustering in Malawian children in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV, malaria and malnutrition

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Peterson, Ingrid, Bar-Zeev, Naor, Kennedy, Neil, Ho, Antonia, Newberry, Laura, San Joaquin, Miguel A, Menyere, Mavis, Alaerts, Maaike, Mapurisa, Gugulethu, Chilombe, Moses, Mambule, Ivan, Lalloo, David ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7680-2200, Anderson, Suzanne T, Katangwe, Thembi, Cunliffe, Nigel, Nagelkerke, Nico, McMorrow, Meredith, Widdowson, Marc-Allain, French, Neil, Everett, Dean and Heyderman, Robert S (2016) 'Respiratory virus-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and viral clustering in Malawian children in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV, malaria and malnutrition'. Journal of Infectious Disease, Vol 214, Issue 11, pp. 1700-1711.

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Abstract

Background
We used four years of paediatric severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) sentinel surveillance in Blantyre, Malawi to identify factors associated with clinical severity and co-viral clustering.

Methods
From January 2011 to December 2014, 2363 children aged 3 months to 14 years presenting to hospital with SARI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses. We assessed risk factors for clinical severity and conducted clustering analysis to identify viral clusters in children with co-viral detection.

Results
Hospital-attended influenza-positive SARI incidence was 2.0 cases per 10,000 children annually; it was highest children aged under 1 year (6.3 cases per 10,000), and HIV-infected children aged 5 to 9 years (6.0 cases per 10,000). 605 (26.8%) SARI cases had warning signs, which were positively associated with HIV infection (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.9), RSV infection (aRR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.0) and rainy season (aRR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8). We identified six co-viral clusters; one cluster was associated with SARI with warning signs.

Conclusions
Influenza vaccination may benefit young children and HIV infected children in this setting. Viral clustering may be associated with SARI severity; its assessment should be included in routine SARI surveillance.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > Immunotherapy and Hypersensitivity > QW 806 Vaccination
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections > WC 503.5 Complications
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Viral Respiratory Tract Infections. Respirovirus Infections > WC 505 Viral respiratory tract infections
WS Pediatrics > Diseases of Children and Adolescents > By System > WS 280 Respiratory system
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Clinical Sciences & International Health > International Public Health Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw426
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2016 13:31
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2018 10:36
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6190

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