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Multiple insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in southern Ghana: implications for malaria control

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Riveron, Jacob ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5395-767X, Osae, Michael, Egyir-Yawson, Alexander, Irving, Helen, Ibrahim, SulaimanSadi and Wondji, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0791-3673 (2016) 'Multiple insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in southern Ghana: implications for malaria control'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 9, Issue 504.

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Abstract

Background
Understanding the dynamics of insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors is crucial for successful implementation of resistance management strategies in the continent. This study reports a high and multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus from southern Ghana which could compromise the Malaria Operational Plan in this country, if not tackled. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Obuasi and Adawukwa, in southern Ghana. Plasmodium infection rates, susceptibility to the main insecticides used in public health and the molecular basis of insecticide resistance were established.

Results
An. funestus (sensu stricto) (s.s.) was the predominant mosquito species found resting inside the houses in Obuasi, while at Adawukwa it was found together with An. coluzzii. Parasite rates were high in An. funestus (s.s.) populations from both localities, with Plasmodium infection rates greater than 12.5 %. Both, An. funestus (s.s.) and An. coluzzii, from the two sites exhibited high resistance to the insecticide from various classes including the pyrethroids, carbamates and DDT, but remained fully susceptible to the organophosphates. A preliminary characterization of the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance in An. funestus (s.s.) populations from both sites revealed that CYP6P9a, CYP6P9b, CYP6M7 and GSTe2 genes are upregulated, markedly higher in Obuasi (between 3.35 and 1.83 times) than in Adawukwa population. The frequency of L119F-GSTe2 and A296S-RDL resistance markers were also higher in Obuasi (42.5 and 68.95 % higher), compared with An. funestus (s.s.) populations from Adawukwa. These findings suggest that the similar resistance pattern observed in both An. funestus (s.s.) populations are driven by different mechanisms.

Conclusions
Resistance to multiple insecticides in public health use is present in malaria vectors from Ghana with major resistance genes already operating in the field. This should be taken into consideration in the design of resistance management strategies to avoid operational failure.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > Immune Responses > QW 700 Infection. Mechanisms of infection and resistance.
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1787-8
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 26 Sep 2016 13:42
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:13
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6191

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