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Investigating the contribution of peri-domestic transmission to risk of zoonotic malaria infection in humans

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Manin, Benny O., Ferguson, Heather M., Vythilingam, Indra, Fornace, Kim, William, Timothy, Torr, Steve ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9550-4030, Drakeley, Chris and Chua, Tock H. (2016) 'Investigating the contribution of peri-domestic transmission to risk of zoonotic malaria infection in humans'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 10, Issue 10, e0005064.

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Abstract

Background
In recent years, the primate malaria Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged in human populations throughout South East Asia, with the largest hotspot being in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Control efforts are hindered by limited knowledge of where and when people get exposed to mosquito vectors. It is assumed that exposure occurs primarily when people are working in forest areas, but the role of other potential exposure routes (including domestic or peri-domestic transmission) has not been thoroughly investigated.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We integrated entomological surveillance within a comprehensive case-control study occurring within a large hotspot of transmission in Sabah, Malaysia. Mosquitoes were collected at 28 pairs households composed of one where an occupant had a confirmed P. knowlesi infection within the preceding 3 weeks (“case”) and an associated “control” where no infection was reported. Human landing catches were conducted to measure the number and diversity of mosquitoes host seeking inside houses and in the surrounding peri-domestic (outdoors but around the household) areas. The predominant malaria vector species was Anopheles balabacensis, most of which were caught outdoors in the early evening (6pm - 9pm). It was significantly more abundant in the peri-domestic area than inside houses (5.5-fold), and also higher at case than control households (0.28±0.194 vs 0.17±0.127, p<0.001). Ten out of 641 An. balabacensis tested were positive for simian malaria parasites, but none for P. knowlesi.
Conclusions/Significance
This study shows there is a possibility that humans can be exposed to P. knowlesi infection around their homes. The vector is highly exophagic and few were caught indoors indicating interventions using bednets inside households may have relatively little impact.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 950 Zoonoses (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005064
Depositing User: Carmel Bates
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2016 11:33
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:13
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6224

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