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Multiple Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus from Northern Cameroon Is Mediated by Metabolic Resistance Alongside Potential Target Site Insensitivity Mutations

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Menze, Benjamin D., Riveron, Jacob ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5395-767X, Ibrahim, SulaimanSadi, Irving, Helen, Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe, Awono-Ambene, Parfait H. and Wondji, Charles ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0791-3673 (2016) 'Multiple Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus from Northern Cameroon Is Mediated by Metabolic Resistance Alongside Potential Target Site Insensitivity Mutations'. PLoS ONE, Vol 11, Issue 10, e0163261.

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Abstract

Background
Despite the recent progress in establishing the patterns of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, Central African populations of this species remain largely uncharacterised. To bridge this important gap and facilitate the implementation of suitable control strategies against this vector, we characterised the resistance patterns of An. funestus population from northern Cameroon.

Methods and Findings

Collection of indoor-resting female mosquitoes in Gounougou (northern Cameroon) in 2012 and 2015 revealed a predominance of An. funestus during dry season. WHO bioassays performed using F1 An. funestus revealed that the population was multiple resistant to several insecticide classes including pyrethroids (permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox), carbamates (bendiocarb) and organochlorines (DDT and dieldrin). However, a full susceptibility was observed against the organophosphate malathion. Bioassays performed with 2015 collection revealed that resistance against pyrethroids and DDT is increasing. PBO synergist assays revealed a significant recovery of susceptibility for all pyrethroids but less for DDT. Analysis of the polymorphism of a portion of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) revealed the absence of the L1014F/S kdr mutation but identified 3 novel amino acid changes I877L, V881L and A1007S. However, no association was established between VGSC polymorphism and pyrethroid/DDT resistance. The DDT resistant 119F-GSTe2 allele (52%) and the dieldrin resistant 296S-RDL allele (45%) were detected in Gounougou. Temporal analysis between 2006, 2012 and 2015 collections revealed that the 119F-GSTe2 allele was relatively stable whereas a significant decrease is observed for 296S-RDL allele.

Conclusion
This multiple resistance coupled with the temporal increased in resistance intensity highlights the need to take urgent measures to prolong the efficacy of current insecticide-based interventions against An. funestus in this African region.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163261
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 11 Oct 2016 10:20
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:13
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6260

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