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Focusing nucleic acid-based molecular diagnostics and xenomonitoring approaches for human helminthiases amenable to preventive chemotherapy

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Minetti, Corrado ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7862-4874, LaCourse, James ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9261-7136, Reimer, Lisa ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9711-4981 and Stothard, Russell ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9370-3420 (2016) 'Focusing nucleic acid-based molecular diagnostics and xenomonitoring approaches for human helminthiases amenable to preventive chemotherapy'. Parasitology Open, Vol 2, Issue e16, pp. 1-17.

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Abstract

The current mainstay for control of the four major helminth diseases in humans (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases and schistosomiasis) is with preventive chemotherapy by mass administration of key anthelminthics. Following the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases in 2012, a roadmap for the elimination and control of these helminthiases by 2020 has been devised. With expected declines in prevalence and intensity of these infections, there is urgent need for implementing more sensitive, high-throughput and cost-effective diagnostic tools. Currently available diagnostic approaches for surveying, monitoring and evaluating helminth control programmes are based on microscopical observation of eggs/larvae, and/or detection of antibodies or parasite antigens in stool, urine or blood; all relatively low-throughput and of limited sensitivity and specificity. Newly proposed approaches for helminthiases diagnosis include the nucleic acid-based methods of (multiplex) real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, loop-mediated isothermal amplification and recombinase polymerase amplification. However, as well as sensitivity/specificity evaluation, their comparison to current ‘gold standard’ diagnostics and future application in individual-/community-based diagnosis, or in xenomonitoring requires consideration of relative costs, agreement of standard methods and strategic interpretation of resulting data before control/elimination programmes might best utilize molecular diagnostics to inform decision making. We review current nucleic-acid-based molecular diagnostic methods and highlight the needs and future research required to refine these tools for monitoring and evaluation of control and elimination programmes for four major human helminthiases.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: neglected tropical diseases, molecular diagnosis, xenomonitoring, LAMP, RPA, real-time PCR, qPCR.
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 200 Helminths
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Health Administration and Organization > WA 530 International health administration
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 800 Helminthiasis
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 810 Schistosomiasis
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 885 Onchocerciasis
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1017/pao.2016.13
Depositing User: Mary Creegan
Date Deposited: 25 Nov 2016 15:01
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:13
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6394

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