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Towards interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: developing an appropriate environmental surveillance framework to guide and to support 'end game' interventions.

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Stothard, Russell ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9370-3420, Campbell, Suzanne, Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y, Durant, Timothy, Stanton, Michelle ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1754-4894, Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo, Rollinson, David, Ombede, Dieudonné R Eloundou and Tchuem-Tchuenté, Louis-Albert (2017) 'Towards interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: developing an appropriate environmental surveillance framework to guide and to support 'end game' interventions.'. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Vol 6, Issue 10.

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Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a waterborne parasitic disease in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly common in rural populations living in impoverished conditions. With the scale-up of preventive chemotherapy, national campaigns will transition from morbidity- to transmission-focused interventions thus formal investigation of actual or expected declines in environmental transmission is needed as ‘end game’ scenarios arise. Surprisingly, there are no international or national guidelines to do so in sub-Saharan Africa. Our article therefore provides an introduction to key practicalities and pitfalls in the development of an appropriate environmental surveillance framework. In this context, we discuss how strategies need to be adapted and tailored to the local level to better guide and support future interventions through this transition. As detection of egg-patent infection in people becomes rare, careful sampling of schistosome larvae in freshwater and in aquatic snails with robust species-specific DNA assays will be required. Appropriate metrics, derived from observed prevalence(s) as compared with predetermined thresholds, could each provide a clearer insight into contamination- and exposure-related dynamics. Application could be twofold, first to certify areas currently free from schistosomiasis transmission or second to red-flag recalcitrant locations where extra effort or alternative interventions are needed.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 675 Mollusca
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 810 Schistosomiasis
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-016-0215-9
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 16 Feb 2017 11:04
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:14
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6785

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