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Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a crosssectional survey

Tabue, Raymond N., Awono-Ambene, Parfait, Etang, Josiane, Atangana, Jean, Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe, Toto, Jean C., Patchoke, Salomon, Leke, Rose G.F., Fondjo, Etienne, Mnzava, Abraham P., Knox, Tessa B., Tougordi, Alexis, Donnelly, Martin and Bigoga, Jude D. (2017) 'Role of Anopheles (Cellia) rufipes (Gough, 1910) and other local anophelines in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon: a crosssectional survey'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 10, Issue 22.

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Abstract

Background
As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of longlasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite
transmission.

Methods
For four consecutive years (2011–2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon. Mosquitoes sampled by human landing catch and pyrethrum spray catch methods were morphologically identified,
their ovaries dissected for parity determination and Anopheles gambiae siblings were identified by molecular assay. Infection with P. falciparum and blood meal source in residual fauna of indoor resting anopheline mosquitoes were determined by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays.

Results
Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) (s.l.) comprised 18.4% of mosquitoes collected with An. arabiensis representing 66.27% of the sibling species. The proportion of An. rufipes (2.7%) collected was high with a humanbiting rate ranging between 0.441 and 11.083 bites/person/night (b/p/n) and an anthropophagic rate of 15.36%.
Although overall the members of An. gambiae complex were responsible for most of the transmission with entomological inoculation rates (EIR) reaching 1.221 infective bites/person/night (ib/p/n), An. arabiensis and An.coluzzii were the most implicated. The roles of An. funestus, An. pharoensis and An. paludis were minor. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein rate in Anopheles rufipes varied from 0.6 to 5.7% with EIR values between 0.010
and 0.481 ib/p/n

Conclusions
The study highlights the epidemiological role of An. rufipes alongside the members of the An.gambiae complex, and several other sympatric species in human malaria transmission during the wet season in northern Cameroon. For the first time in Cameroon, An. rufipes has been shown to be an important local malaria vector, emphasising the need to review the malaria entomological profile across the country as pre-requisite to
effective vector management strategies.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1933-3
Depositing User: Carmel Bates
Date Deposited: 03 Mar 2017 16:33
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:14
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6807

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