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A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria

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Ogoma, Sheila B., Mmando, Arnold S., Swai, Johnson K., Horstmann, Sebastian, Malone, David and Killeen, Gerry (2017) 'A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 11, Issue 4, e0005455.

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Abstract

Background

The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed.

Methodology

The effects of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips upon mosquito biting exposure of users and nearby non-users, as well as dependence of protection upon treatment dose, were measured outdoors in rural Tanzania using human landing catches (HLC).

Principal findings

Strips treated with 10ml of transfluthrin prevented at least three quarters (p < 0.001) of outdoor bites by Anopheles arabiensis, Culex spp. and Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, and >90% protection against bites on warmer nights with higher evaporation rates, for at least one year. Strips treated with this high dose also reduced biting exposure of non-users at a distance of up to 5m from the strips for An. arabiensis (p < 0.001) and up to 2m for Mansonia spp. (p = 0.008), but provided no protection to non-users against Culex spp. No evidence of increased risk for non-users, caused by diversion of mosquitoes to unprotected individuals, was found at any distance within an 80m radius. A dose of only 1ml provided equivalent protection to the 10ml dose against An. arabiensis, Culex spp. and Mansonia spp. mosquitoes over 6 months (p < 0.001).

Conclusions/Significance

Transfluthrin-treated hessian emanators provide safe, affordable, long-term protection against several different pathogen-transmitting mosquito taxa that attack humans outdoors, where they are usually active and cannot be protected by bed nets or residual sprays with conventional, solid-phase insecticides.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 108 Preventive health services. Preventive medicine. Travel Medicine.
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Infectious Mononucleosis. Arbovirus Infections > WC 524 Arbovirus infections
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005455
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: JISC Pubrouter
Date Deposited: 21 Apr 2017 09:18
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:14
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/6992

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