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Exhaled carbon monoxide: a non-invasive biomarker of short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution

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Lawin, Herve, Fanou, Lucie Ayi, Hinson, Vikkey, Wanjiku, Jacqueline, Ukwaja, N. Kingsley, Gordon, Stephen ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6576-1116, Fayomi, Benjamin, Balmes, John R, Houngbegnon, Parfait, Avokpaho, Euripide and Sanni, Ambaliou (2017) 'Exhaled carbon monoxide: a non-invasive biomarker of short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution'. BMC Public Health, Vol 17, Issue e320.

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Abstract

Background
In urban settings of Africa with rapidly increasing population, traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to outdoor air pollution (OAP). Although OAP has been identified as a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, there is however, lack of a simple biomarker to assess levels of exposure to OAP in resource-poor settings. This study evaluated the role of exhaled carbon monoxide (exhCO) as a potential biomarker of exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (ambCO) from OAP.

Methods
This was a descriptive study conducted among male commercial motorcycle riders in Cotonou – the economic capital of Benin. The participants’ AmbCO was measured using a portable carbon monoxide (CO) data logger for 8 h during the period of their shift. ExhCO was measured just before and immediately after their shift (8-h) Participants were asked not to cook or to smoke during the day of the measurements. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between ambCO and exhCO for the last 2, 4 and 6 h of their shift.

Results
Of 170 participants who completed the study, their mean ± SD age was 42.2 ± 8.4 years, and their mean ± SD daily income was 7.3 ± 2.7$. Also, 95% of the participants’ used solid fuels for cooking and only 2% had ever smoked. Average exhCO increased by 5.1 ppm at the end of the shift (p = 0.004). Post-shift exhCO was significantly associated to ambCO, this association was strongest for the last 2 h of OAP exposure before exhCO measurement (β = 0.34, p < 0.001).

Conclusion
ExhCO level was associated with recent exposure to ambCO from OAP with measurable increase after 8 h of exposure. These findings suggest that ExhCO may be a potential biomarker of short-term exposure to OAP

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QT Physiology > Human Physiology > QT 140 Environmental exposure. Physiological adaptation
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WA Public Health > WA 4 Works on general hygiene
WA Public Health > Air pollution > WA 750 Air sanitation and hygiene
WF Respiratory System > WF 20 Research (General)
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4243-6
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 10 May 2017 10:11
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:14
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/7050

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