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A community-based Isoniazid preventive therapy for the prevention of childhood tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

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Datiko, Daniel G, Yassin, Mohammed A., Theobald, Sally ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9053-211X and Cuevas, Luis ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6581-0587 (2017) 'A community-based Isoniazid preventive therapy for the prevention of childhood tuberculosis in Ethiopia.'. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol 21, Issue 9, 1002-1007(6).

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Abstract

Background: Children in contact with adults with tuberculosis should receive Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) but this is rarely implemented.

Aim: To assess whether a community-based approach providing IPT at household level improves uptake and adherence in Ethiopia.
Methods: Contacts of adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) were visited at home and examined by Health Extension Workers (HEWs). Asymptomatic children <5 years were offered IPT and followed monthly.

Results: 5,345 (87%) of 6,161 PTB+ cases identified by the HEWs in the community were visited, identifying 24,267 contacts. 7,226 (29.8%) contacts were children <15 and 3,102 (12.7%) of them were <5 years old. 2,949 contacts had symptoms of TB and 1,336 submitted sputum for examination. 92 (6.9%) had PTB+ and 169 all forms of TB. Of 3,027 asymptomatic children, only 1,761 were offered (and accepted) IPT due to isoniazid shortages. Of these, 1,615 (91.7%) completed the 6-month course. The most frequent reason for discontinuing IPT was also Isoniazid shortages.

Interpretation: contact tracing contributed to detection of additional TB cases and provision of IPT for young children. Delivery of IPT in the community alongside community-based TB interventions resulted in better acceptance and improved treatment outcome.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QV Pharmacology > Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antineoplastic Agents > QV 268 Antitubercular agents. Antitubercular antibiotics
QW Microbiology and Immunology > QW 4 General works. Classify here works on microbiology as a whole.
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 320 Child Welfare. Child Health Services.
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WF Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > WF 200 Tuberculosis (General)
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.16.0471
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 04 Jul 2017 13:58
Last Modified: 10 Oct 2017 01:02
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/7086

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