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Rapid integrated clinical survey to determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in a Loa loa co-endemic area: The Angolan experience

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Brito, M, Paulo, R, Van-Dunem, P, Martins, A, Unnash, TR, Novak, RJ, Jacob, B, Stanton, Michelle ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1754-4894, Molyneux, David ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8537-7947 and Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3330-7629 (2017) 'Rapid integrated clinical survey to determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in a Loa loa co-endemic area: The Angolan experience'. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, Vol 2, Issue 3, pp. 71-84.

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Abstract

The Republic of Angola is a priority country for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination, however, the co-distribution of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis) is a significant impediment, due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with ivermectin used in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns. Angola has a high risk loiasis zone identified in Bengo Province where alternative interventions may need to be implemented; however, the presence and geographical overlap of the three filarial infections/diseases are not well defined. Therefore, this study conducted a rapid integrated filarial mapping survey based on readily identifiable clinical conditions of each disease in this risk zone to help determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns in a timely manner with limited resources. In total, 2007 individuals from 29 communities in five provincial municipalities were surveyed. Community prevalence estimates were determined by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) and rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) together with two questions on LF clinical manifestations (presence of lymphoedema, hydrocoele). Overall low levels of endemicity, with different overlapping distributions were found. Loiasis was found in 18 communities with a prevalence of 2.0% (31/1571), which contrasted to previous results defining the area as a high risk zone. Onchocerciasis prevalence was 5.3% (49/922) in eight communities, and LF prevalence was 0.4% for lymphoedema (8/2007) and 2.6% for hydrocoeles (20/761 males) in seven and 12 communities respectively. The clinical mapping survey method helped to highlight that all three filarial infections are present in this zone of Bengo Province. However, the significant difference in loiasis prevalence found between the past and this current survey suggests that further studies including serological and parasitological confirmation are required. This will help determine levels of infection and risk, understand the associations between clinical, serological and parasitological prevalence patterns, and better determine the most appropriate treatment strategies to reach onchocerciasis and LF elimination targets in the loiasis co-endemic areas. Our results also suggest that the utility of the earlier RAPLOA derived maps, based on surveys undertaken over a decade ago, are likely to be invalid given the extent of population movement and environmental change, particularly deforestation, and that fine scale micro-mapping is required to more precisely delineate the interventions required defined by these complex co-endemicities.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 301 Filarioidea
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 885 Onchocerciasis
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2017.05.001
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2018 16:53
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2018 16:14
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/7180

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