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A public health approach to addressing and preventing misdiagnosis in the scale-up of HIV rapid testing programmes.

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Johnson, Cheryl C, Dalal, Shona, Baggaley, Rachel and Taegtmeyer, Miriam ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5377-2536 (2017) 'A public health approach to addressing and preventing misdiagnosis in the scale-up of HIV rapid testing programmes.'. Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol 20, Issue Suppl 6, e22190.

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Abstract

The global impact of the scale-up HIV testing and treatment has been impressive. In 2015, approximately 60% of people with HIV worldwide were aware of their status [1]. As a result by the end of 2015, 17 million people with HIV were on treatment, and global treatment coverage reached 46% [1]. HIV testing and treatment have reduced AIDS-related deaths by 43% since 2003 [1,2]. In order to further increase impact and improve health outcomes, in 2016 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people with HIV regardless of disease status [3]. These calls to continue scale-up of testing and treatment and to achieve the United Nation’s (UN) “90-90-90” targets remain a global priority. Achieving the “first 90” by reaching people with HIV who have yet to be diagnosed, and linking them to treatment as early as possible, is a critical first step.

Degrees of uncertainty exist with all medical testing and diagnoses; in the field of HIV, advances in diagnostic test technology have made testing accurate and reliable. WHO prequalified HIV rapid diagnostic tests all have a sensitivity of ≥99% and specificity ≥98% and are accurate when used correctly in a validated national algorithm. A large number of tests are conducted every year. Although a degree of error and misdiagnosis can be expected, very few cases of false negative and false positive diagnoses have been reported [4–12]. This lack of reporting on testing error and misdiagnoses is not unique to HIV [13–16]. Publication bias and concerns about programme reputation may have contributed to low reporting of misdiagnosis and limit the open discussion required to address errors systematically [16].

To further investigate diagnostic error, determine common causes, and identify potential ways to address misdiagnosis, particularly in resource-limited settings, WHO, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) held a symposium to address the social, public health, human rights, ethical and legal implications of misdiagnosis of HIV status [17]. This special issue of the Journal of the International AIDS Society follows this symposium by focusing on the individual and public health implications of HIV misdiagnosis.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Special Issue: Volume 20, Programmatic and public health implications of misdiagnosis of HIV
Subjects: WA Public Health > WA 100 General works
WB Practice of Medicine > Diagnosis > General Diagnosis > WB 141 General works
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections > WC 503 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV infections
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections > WC 503.1 Diagnosis
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > International Public Health Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7448/IAS.20.7.22190
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 03 Oct 2017 15:35
Last Modified: 17 Oct 2019 10:52
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/7607

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