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Significant decline in lymphatic filariasis associated with nationwide scale-up of insecticide-treated nets in Zambia

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Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale, Mwase, E, Chizema-Kawesha, E, Mukonka, V, Songolo, P, Masaninga, F, Rebollo, Maria, Thomas, Brent ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1118-5429, Bockarie, Moses, Betts, Hannah, Stothard, Russell ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9370-3420 and Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3330-7629 (2017) 'Significant decline in lymphatic filariasis associated with nationwide scale-up of insecticide-treated nets in Zambia'. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, Vol 2, Issue 4, pp. 7-14.

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Abstract

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne disease, broadly endemic in Zambia, and is targeted for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) to at-risk populations. Anopheline mosquitoes are primary vectors of LF in Africa, and it is possible that the significant scale-up of malaria vector control over the past decade may have also impacted LF transmission, and contributed to a decrease in prevalence in Zambia. We therefore aimed to examine the putative association between decreasing LF prevalence and increasing coverage of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for malaria vector control, by comparing LF mapping data collected between 2003–2005 and 2009–2011 to LF sentinel site prevalence data collected between 2012 and 2014, before any anti-LF MDA was started. The coverage of ITNs for malaria was quantified and compared for each site in relation to the dynamics of LF. We found a significant decrease in LF prevalence from the years 2003–2005 (11.5% CI95 6.6; 16.4) to 2012–2014 (0.6% CI95 0.03; 1.1); at the same time, there was a significant scale-up of ITNs across the country from 0.2% (CI95 0.0; 0.3) to 76.1% (CI95 71.4; 80.7) respectively. The creation and comparison of two linear models demonstrated that the geographical and temporal variation in ITN coverage was a better predictor of LF prevalence than year alone. Whilst a causal relationship between LF prevalence and ITN coverage cannot be proved, we propose that the scale-up of ITNs has helped to control Anopheles mosquito populations, which have in turn impacted on LF transmission significantly before the scale-up of MDA. This putative synergy with vector control has helped to put Zambia on track to meet national and global goals of LF elimination by 2020.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2017.08.001
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2018 16:31
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2018 16:14
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8055

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