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Combinations of registered drugs reduce treatment times required to deplete Wolbachia in the Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model.

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Specht, Sabine, Pfarr, Kenneth M, Arriens, Sandra, Hübner, Marc P, Klarmann-Schulz, Ute, Koschel, Marianne, Sternberg, Sonja, Martin, Coralie, Ford, Louise, Taylor, Mark and Hoerauf, Achim (2018) 'Combinations of registered drugs reduce treatment times required to deplete Wolbachia in the Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model.'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 12, Issue 1, e0006116.

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Abstract

Filarial parasites can be targeted by antibiotic treatment due to their unique endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia bacteria. This finding has led to successful treatment strategies in both, human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. A 4-6 week treatment course using doxycycline results in long-term sterility and safe macrofilaricidal activity in humans. However, current treatment times and doxycycline contraindications in children and pregnant women preclude widespread administration of doxycycline in public health control programs; therefore, the search for shorter anti-wolbachial regimens is a focus of ongoing research. We have established an in vivo model for compound screening, using mice infected with Litomosoides sigmodontis. We could show that gold standard doxycycline treatment did not only deplete Wolbachia, it also resulted in a larval arrest. In this model, combinations of registered antibiotics were tested for their anti-wolbachial activity. Administration of rifamycins in combination with doxycycline for 7 days successfully depleted Wolbachia by > 2 log (>99% reduction) and thus resulted in a significant reduction of the treatment duration. Using a triple combination of a tetracycline (doxycycline or minocycline), a rifamycin and a fluoroquinolone (moxifloxacin) led to an even greater shortening of the treatment time. Testing all double combinations that could be derived from the triple combinations revealed that the combination of rifapentine (15mg/kg) and moxifloxacin (2 x 200mg/kg) showed the strongest reduction of treatment time in intraperitoneal and also oral administration routes. The rifapentine plus moxifloxacin combination was equivalent to the triple combination with additional doxycycline (>99% Wolbachia reduction). These investigations suggest that it is possible to shorten anti-wolbachial treatment times with combination treatments in order to achieve the target product profile (TPP) requirements for macrofilaricidal drugs of no more than 7-10 days of treatment.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QV Pharmacology > Anti-Bacterial Agents. Tissue Extracts > QV 350 Anti-bacterial agents (General or not elsewhere classified)
QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 301 Filarioidea
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 700 Protozoan infections (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006116
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2018 11:31
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2018 09:37
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8080

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