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Genomes of trombidid mites reveal novel predicted allergens and laterally-transferred genes associated with secondary metabolism

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Dong, Xiaofeng, Chaisiri, Kittipong, Xia, Dong, Armstrong, Stuart D, Fang, Yongxiang, Donnelly, Martin ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5218-1497, Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko, McGarry, John W, Darby, Alistair C and Makepeace, Benjamin L (2018) 'Genomes of trombidid mites reveal novel predicted allergens and laterally-transferred genes associated with secondary metabolism'. GigaScience, Vol 7, Issue 12, giy127.

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Abstract

Background: Trombidid mites have a unique lifecycle in which only the larval stage is ectoparasitic. In the superfamily Trombiculoidea ('chiggers'), the larvae feed preferentially on vertebrates, including humans. Species in the genus Leptotrombidium are vectors of a potentially fatal bacterial infection, scrub typhus, which affects 1 million people annually. Moreover, chiggers can cause pruritic dermatitis (trombiculiasis) in humans and domesticated animals. In the Trombidioidea (velvet mites), the larvae feed on other arthropods and are potential biological control agents for agricultural pests. Here, we present the first trombidid mites genomes, obtained both for a chigger, Leptotrombidium deliense, and for a velvet mite, Dinothrombium tinctorium.

Results: Sequencing was performed using Illumina technology. A 180 Mb draft assembly for D. tinctorium was generated from two paired-end and one mate-pair library using a single adult specimen. For L. deliense, a lower-coverage draft assembly (117 Mb) was obtained using pooled, engorged larvae with a single paired-end library. Remarkably, both genomes exhibited evidence of ancient lateral gene transfer from soil-derived bacteria or fungi. The transferred genes confer functions that are rare in animals, including terpene and carotenoid synthesis. Thirty-seven allergenic protein families were predicted in the L. deliense genome, of which nine were unique. Preliminary proteomic analyses identified several of these putative allergens in larvae.

Conclusions: Trombidid mite genomes appear to be more dynamic than those of other acariform mites. A priority for future research is to determine the biological function of terpene synthesis in this taxon and its potential for exploitation in disease control.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QU Biochemistry > Genetics > QU 500 Genetic phenomena
QU Biochemistry > Genetics > QU 550 Genetic techniques. PCR. Chromosome mapping
QW Microbiology and Immunology > Immunotherapy and Hypersensitivity > QW 900 Anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity. Allergens
QX Parasitology > Arthropods > QX 483 Trombiculidae
WC Communicable Diseases > Rickettsiaceae Infections. Chlamydiaceae Infections > WC 630 Scrub typhus
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giy127
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 23 Nov 2018 10:45
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2019 10:53
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8233

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