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Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in west African urban areas: is implementation of mass drug administration necessary?

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Koudou, Benjamin, de Souza, Dziedzom K, Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo, Bougma, Roland, Aboulaye, Meite, Elhassan, Elizabeth, Bush, Simon and Molyneux, David ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8537-7947 (2018) 'Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in west African urban areas: is implementation of mass drug administration necessary?'. Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol 18, Issue 6, e214-e220.

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Abstract

Lymphatic filariasis in Africa is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and remains a major cause of morbidity and disability in 74 countries globally. A key strategy of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis, which has a target elimination date of 2020, is the treatment of entire endemic communities through mass drug administration of albendazole in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine. Although the strategy of mass drug administration in combination with other interventions, such as vector control, has led to elimination of the infection and its transmission in many rural communities, urban areas in west Africa present specific challenges to achieving the 2020 targets. In this Personal View, we examine these challenges and the relevance of mass drug administration in urban areas, exploring the rationale for a reassessment of policy in these settings. The community-based mass treatment approach is best suited to rural areas, is challenging and costly in urban areas, and cannot easily achieve the 65% consistent coverage required for elimination of transmission. In our view, the implementation of mass drug administration might not be essential to interrupt transmission of lymphatic filariasis in urban areas in west Africa. Evidence shows that transmission levels are low and that effective mass drug distribution is difficult to implement, with assessments suggesting that specific control measures against filariasis in such dynamic settings is not an effective use of limited resources. Instead, we recommend that individuals who have clinical disease or who test positive for W bancrofti infection in surveillance activities should be offered antifilarial drugs through a passive surveillance approach, as well as morbidity management for their needs. We also recommend that more precise studies are done, so that mass drug administration in urban areas is considered if sustainable transmission is found to be ongoing. Otherwise, the limited resources should be directed towards other elements of the lymphatic filariasis programme. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.]

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 108 Preventive health services. Preventive medicine. Travel Medicine.
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30069-0
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 28 Feb 2018 17:01
Last Modified: 03 Aug 2018 01:02
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8250

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