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Insecticide resistance evolution with mixtures and sequences: a model-based explanation

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South, Andrew and Hastings, Ian ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1332-742X (2018) 'Insecticide resistance evolution with mixtures and sequences: a model-based explanation'. Malaria Journal, Vol 17, Issue 1, e80.

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Abstract

Background
Insecticide resistance threatens effective vector control, especially for mosquitoes and malaria. To manage resistance, recommended insecticide use strategies include mixtures, sequences and rotations. New insecticides are being developed and there is an opportunity to develop use strategies that limit the evolution of further resistance in the short term. A 2013 review of modelling and empirical studies of resistance points to the advantages of mixtures. However, there is limited recent, accessible modelling work addressing the evolution of resistance under different operational strategies. There is an opportunity to improve the level of mechanistic understanding within the operational community of how insecticide resistance can be expected to evolve in response to different strategies. This paper provides a concise, accessible description of a flexible model of the evolution of insecticide resistance. The model is used to develop a mechanistic picture of the evolution of insecticide resistance and how it is likely to respond to potential insecticide use strategies. The aim is to reach an audience unlikely to read a more detailed modelling paper. The model itself, as described here, represents two independent genes coding for resistance to two insecticides. This allows the representation of the use of insecticides in isolation, sequence and mixtures.

Results
The model is used to demonstrate the evolution of resistance under different scenarios and how this fits with intuitive reasoning about selection pressure. Using an insecticide in a mixture, relative to alone, always prompts slower evolution of resistance to that insecticide. However, when resistance to both insecticides is considered, resistance thresholds may be reached later for a sequence relative to a mixture. Increasing the ability of insecticides to kill susceptible mosquitoes (effectiveness), has the most influence on favouring a mixture over a sequence because one highly effective insecticide provides more protection to another in a mixture.

Conclusions
The model offers an accessible description of the process of insecticide resistance evolution and how it is likely to respond to insecticide use. A simple online user-interface allowing further exploration is also provided. These tools can contribute to an improved discussion about operational decisions in insecticide resistance management.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2203-y
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2018 12:54
Last Modified: 06 Jul 2018 15:20
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8264

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