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Temporal and spatial trends in insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: outcomes from an evaluation of implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control.

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Ismail, Bashir Adam, Kafy, Hmooda Toto, Sulieman, Jihad Eltaher, Subramaniam, Krishanthi, Thomas, Brent ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1118-5429, Mnzava, Abraham, Kassim, Nur Faeza Abu, Ahmad, Abu Hassan, Knox, Tessa B, Kleinschmidt, Immo and Donnelly, Martin ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5218-1497 (2018) 'Temporal and spatial trends in insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: outcomes from an evaluation of implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control.'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 11, Issue 1, p. 122.

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Abstract

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) (with pyrethroids) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of the Sudanese malaria control program. Insecticide resistance to the principal insecticides in LLINs and IRS is a major concern. This study was designed to monitor insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from 140 clusters in four malaria-endemic areas of Sudan from 2011 to 2014. All clusters received LLINs, while half (n = 70), distributed across the four regions, had additional IRS campaigns. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes were identified to species level using PCR techniques. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassays were carried out to detect resistance to deltamethrin (0.05%), DDT (4%) and bendiocarb (0.1%). TaqMan assays were performed on random samples of deltamethrin-resistant phenotyped and pyrethrum spray collected individuals to determine Vgsc-1014 knockdown resistance mutations. Anopheles arabiensis accounted for 99.9% of any anopheline species collected across all sites. Bioassay screening indicated that mosquitoes remained susceptible to bendiocarb but were resistance to deltamethrin and DDT in all areas. There were significant increases in deltamethrin resistance over the four years, with overall mean percent mortality to deltamethrin declining from 81.0% (95% CI: 77.6-84.3%) in 2011 to 47.7% (95% CI: 43.5-51.8%) in 2014. The rate of increase in phenotypic deltamethrin-resistance was significantly slower in the LLIN + IRS arm than in the LLIN-only arm (Odds ratio 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.77). The frequency of Vgsc-1014F mutation varied spatiotemporally with highest frequencies in Galabat (range 0.375-0.616) and New Halfa (range 0.241-0.447). Deltamethrin phenotypic-resistance correlated with Vgsc-1014F frequency. Combining LLIN and IRS, with different classes of insecticide, may delay pyrethroid resistance development, but the speed at which resistance develops may be area-specific. Continued monitoring is vital to ensure optimal management and control.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2732-9
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 20 Mar 2018 09:51
Last Modified: 20 Mar 2018 09:51
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8362

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