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The paraspecific neutralisation of snake venom induced coagulopathy by antivenoms

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Ainsworth, Stuart ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0199-6482, Slagboom, Julien, Alomran, Nessrin, Pla, Davinia, Alhamdi, Yasir, King, Sarah, Bolton, Fiona M. S., Gutiérrez, José María, Vonk, Freek J., Toh, Cheng-Hock, Calvete, Juan J., Kool, Jeroen, Harrison, Robert and Casewell, Nicholas ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8035-4719 (2018) 'The paraspecific neutralisation of snake venom induced coagulopathy by antivenoms'. Communications Biology, Vol 1, e34.

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Abstract

Snake envenoming causes several potentially lethal pathologies. The specific pathology is dictated by the toxin composition of venom, which varies by species, geography and ontogeny. This variation severely restricts the paraspecific efficacy of antivenoms used to treat snakebite victims. With a view to devising pathology-specific snakebite treatments, we assessed the procoagulant activity of 57 snake venoms and investigated the efficacy of various antivenoms. We find that procoagulant venoms act differentially on key steps of the coagulation cascade, and that certain monospecific antivenoms work in a previously unrecognised paraspecific manner to neutralise this activity, despite conventional assumptions of congener-restricted efficacy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the metal chelator EDTA is also capable of neutralising venom-induced lethality in vivo. This study illustrates the exciting potential of developing new, broad-spectrum, toxin-targeting antivenoms capable of treating key snakebite pathologies, and advocates a thorough re-examination of enzyme inhibiting compounds as alternative therapies for treating snakebite victims.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QW Microbiology and Immunology > Antigens and Antibodies. Toxins and Antitoxins > QW 630 Toxins. Antitoxins
QW Microbiology and Immunology > Immunotherapy and Hypersensitivity > QW 800 Biological products producing immunity
WD Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin, etc > Animal Poisons > WD 410 Reptiles
WH Hemic and Lymphatic Systems > Hematologic Diseases. Immunologic Factors. Blood Banks > WH 322 Blood coagulation disorders (General)
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-018-0039-1
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 23 Apr 2018 15:43
Last Modified: 27 Apr 2018 08:58
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8501

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