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Filaria control and elimination: diagnostic, monitoring and surveillance needs

Molyneux, David (2009) 'Filaria control and elimination: diagnostic, monitoring and surveillance needs'. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 103, Issue 4, pp. 338-341.

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Abstract

Gold standard diagnosis using blood films or skin snips has dimished relevance as mass drug distribution programmes for control of filaria infections expand. The view of 'diagnosis' and its relevance at the individual level has changed, as it has been recognised that the spectrum of programmatic processes (mapping, mass drug interventions, monitoring and evaluation, and surveillance) require different approaches as different questions are asked at each stage. The feasibility and relevance of skin biopsy or blood film examination is challenged when mass drug distribution seeks to treat all eligibles in communities. The need to expand programmes rapicity by identifying the highest risk communities has seen the development of rapid assessment methods, such as rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) and rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) for onchocerciasis, immunochromatographic test (ICT)-based mapping for lymphatic filariasis (LF), and Rapid Assessment Procedure for Loiasis (RAPLOA) for Loa, to reduce the risk of serious adverse events and to guide projects in high-risk communities. As programmes reduce the prevalence through mass drug distribution, more sensitive techniques are required to define endpoints, for LF in particular where the programmatic goat is elimination: for onchocerciasis, sensitive surveillance toots are required particularly in those areas where such risks of recrudescence are high. Whilst much progress has been made in the development and deployment of rapid methods, there are still specific needs for antigen detection in onchocerciasis, whilst standardisation of a panel of toots for LF with allow the definition of endpoint parameters so that countries can decide when mass drug administration (MDA) can be stopped and have a sensitive post-MDA surveillance system. (C) 2009 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Based on a presentation to a Joint Meeting of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene and Royal Geographical Society Expedition Advisory Centre (Medical Cell) on 22 May 2008, entitled ‘Field epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa: will rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) ever replace microscopy?’.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Dracunculiasis Onchocerciasis Lymphatic filariasis Loiasis Prevention and control Diagnosis
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 108 Preventive health services. Preventive medicine. Travel Medicine.
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 243 Diagnositic services
WB Practice of Medicine > Medical Climatology > WB 710 Diseases of geographic areas
WB Practice of Medicine > Diagnosis > General Diagnosis > WB 141 General works
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 505 Diptera
QX Parasitology > QX 45 Host-parasite relations
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 850 Nematode infections (General)
WA Public Health > WA 105 Epidemiology
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 770 Therapy
QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 301 Filarioidea
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
QX Parasitology > QX 20 Research (General)
WB Practice of Medicine > Therapeutics > WB 340 Drug Administration
WB Practice of Medicine > Therapeutics > WB 330 Drug therapy
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 203 Nematoda
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 885 Onchocerciasis
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Disease Control Strategy Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.12.016
Depositing User: Users 67 not found.
Date Deposited: 09 Jun 2010 14:11
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:00
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/866

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