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The epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Lango Region Uganda 60 years after Schwetz 1951: Can Schistosomiasis be eliminated through Mass Drug Administration without other supportive control measures?

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Adriko, M, Tinkitina, B, Tukahebw, E M, Standley, C J, Stothard, Russell ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9370-3420 and Kabatereine, N B (2018) 'The epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Lango Region Uganda 60 years after Schwetz 1951: Can Schistosomiasis be eliminated through Mass Drug Administration without other supportive control measures?'. Acta Tropica, Vol 185, pp. 412-418.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Lango region is the only known endemic region for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis in Uganda. Although there has been no significant improvement in sanitation and safe water supply in the region over years, the endemicity and prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, in particular, have declined, perhaps due to yearly mass treatment campaigns implemented since 2003.

METHODS
We report the epidemiology of Urinary and Intestinal schistosomiasis in Lango since 1951-2011 determined through Microscopic examinations for S.mansoni and S.haematobium respectively. A retrospective data review from 195-2011 was done to establish the prevalence over the years in the region. We performed Poisson regression analysis to observe trends in epidemiology before and after control was initiated in 2002. In addition, malacological surveys were undertaken in 2007 to assess local transmission potential.

FINDINGS
Contrary to earlier records, S. haematobium was low and confined to a few putative foci, with declined in infections from 28.2% in 1951 to 2.48% by 2011. Although this decline can be attributed to control, this was already much lower in 1967 than 1951, long before control interventions began suggesting that environmental changes may have made the habitat less suitable for the transmission of S.haematobium. Compared to the historical records S.mansoni prevalence first increased up immediately before control interventions in 2003, significantly declined (p=<0.001) until 2007. However, in 2007 and 2011 declined insignificant, (p = 0.656). No snail has ever been isolated shedding S.haematobium cercariae but many Bulinus snail spp were found shedding S.bovis cercariae.

CONCLUSION
This suggests that a combination of environmental and mass treatment has had a significant impact on transmission in Lango region.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 810 Schistosomiasis
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Department of Tropical Disease Biology
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.06.009
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2018 09:24
Last Modified: 31 Aug 2018 10:19
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8850

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