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Increasing evidence of low lymphatic filariasis prevalence in high risk Loa loa areas in Central and West Africa: a literature review.

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Kelly-Hope, Louise ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3330-7629, Hemingway, Janet ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3200-7173, Taylor, Mark and Molyneux, David ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8537-7947 (2018) 'Increasing evidence of low lymphatic filariasis prevalence in high risk Loa loa areas in Central and West Africa: a literature review.'. Parasites & Vectors, Vol 11, Issue 1, p. 349.

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Abstract

In West and Central Africa, there is a need to establish the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas that are co-endemic for Loa loa, in order to implement the appropriate strategies to scale-up interventions for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF). Due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) to ivermectin in individuals with high L. loa microfilaraemia, the current strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is twice yearly mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole, supplemented by vector control targeting the Anopheles vectors. Defining W. bancrofti prevalence in areas co-endemic with L. loa is complicated by the cross-reactivity of rapid diagnostic immunochromatographic card tests (ICT), widely used for LF mapping, in individuals with high L. loa microfilaraemia. This has probably resulted in the overestimation of LF prevalence, triggering the implementation of MDA strategies, which may be unnecessary and wasteful of the limited resources for elimination programme implementation. Here we review the literature and present historical evidence, which uniformly highlight low or no prevalence of W. bancrofti infection and/or clinical LF cases across five Central African countries, in more than 30 different geographical areas covering 280 individual sites and > 22,000 individuals tested within high risk L. loa areas. This highlights the very limited information available on LF prevalence in L. loa areas, and potentially has major policy implications, which could shift the focus towards revised mapping criteria to verify low or no W. bancrofti prevalence in high risk L. loa areas. In this situation, revising the current WHO strategy from MDA, to focus more on ensuring high and effective vector control, through insecticide treated/long-lasting impregnated bednets (ITNs/LLINs), integration of point-of-care test-and-treat options into health systems, and consolidating closer links with the malaria control programme may be a more effective and appropriate use of the limited resources and drug donations available for LF elimination.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 301 Filarioidea
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
WA Public Health > WA 30 Socioeconomic factors in public health (General)
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 880 Filariasis and related conditions (General)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 885 Onchocerciasis
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2900-y
SWORD Depositor: JISC Pubrouter
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2018 10:32
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2018 15:20
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/8858

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