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Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

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Perera, M. D. B., Hemingway, Janet ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3200-7173 and Karunaratne, S. H. P. P. (2008) 'Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka'. Malaria Journal, Vol 7.

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Abstract

Background: The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee) of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles varuna from Anuradhapura district were also tested.
Methods: Adult females were exposed to the WHO discriminating dosages of DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and etofenprox. The presence of metabolic resistance by esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and monooxygenase-based mechanisms, and the sensitivity of the acetylcholinesterase target site were assessed using synergists, and biochemical, and metabolic techniques.
Results: All the anopheline species had high DDT resistance. All An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations were resistant to malathion, except An. culicifacies from Kurunegala, where there was no malathion carboxylesterase activity. Kurunegala and Puttalam populations of An. culicifacies were susceptible to fenitrothion. All the An. culicifacies populations were susceptible to carbamates. Both species were susceptible to the discriminating dosages of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, but had different levels of resistance to other pyrethroids. Of the 8 other anophelines, only An. nigerrimus and An. peditaeniatus were resistant to all the insecticides tested, probably due to their high exposure to the insecticides used in agriculture. An. vagus showed some resistance to permethrin.
Esterases, GSTs and monooxygenases were elevated in both An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. AChE was most sensitive to insecticides in Kurunegala and Trincomalee An. culicifacies populations and highly insensitive in the Trincomalee An. subpictus population.
Conclusion: The complexity of the resistance segregating in these field populations underlines the need for new molecular tools to identify the genomic diversity, differential upregulation and different binding specificities of resistance conferring genes, and the presence of different subspecies with different vectorial capacities.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: malathion resistance lucilia-cuprina culicifacies subpictus organophosphorus culicidae diptera populations village
Subjects: WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 108 Preventive health services. Preventive medicine. Travel Medicine.
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 530 Culex
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 770 Therapy
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 650 Insect vectors
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
WB Practice of Medicine > Medical Climatology > WB 710 Diseases of geographic areas
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 110 Prevention and control of communicable diseases. Transmission of infectious diseases
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 505 Diptera
WA Public Health > Preventive Medicine > WA 240 Disinfection. Disinfestation. Pesticides (including diseases caused by)
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 765 Prevention and control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
Faculty: Department: Groups (2002 - 2012) > Vector Group
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-7-168
Depositing User: Users 183 not found.
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2010 15:28
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 13:00
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/893

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