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Impact of repeated annual community directed treatment with ivermectin on loiasis parasitological indicators in Cameroon: Implications for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination in areas co-endemic with Loa loa in Africa.

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Wanji, Samuel, Chounna Ndongmo, Winston Patrick, Fombad, Fanny Fri, Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas Arnaud, Njouendou, Abdel Jelil, Longang Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore, Koudou, Benjamin, Bockarie, Moses, Fobi, Grace, Roungou, Jean Baptiste and Enyong, Peter A (2018) 'Impact of repeated annual community directed treatment with ivermectin on loiasis parasitological indicators in Cameroon: Implications for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis elimination in areas co-endemic with Loa loa in Africa.'. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol 12, Issue 9, e0006750.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND
Loiasis is a filarial infection endemic in the rainforest zone of west and central Africa particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Repeated treatments with ivermectin have been delivered using the annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) approach for several years to control onchocerciasis in some Loa loa-Onchocerca volvulus co-endemic areas. The impact of CDTI on loiasis parasitological indicators is not known. We, therefore, designed this cross sectional study to explore the effects of several rounds of CDTI on parasitological indicators of loiasis.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS
The study was conducted in the East, Northwest and Southwest 2 CDTI projects of Cameroon. Individuals who consented to participate were interviewed for ivermectin treatment history and enrolled for parasitological screening using thick smears. Ivermectin treatment history was correlated with loiasis prevalence/intensity. A total of 3,684 individuals were recruited from 36 communities of the 3 CDTI projects and 900 individuals from 9 villages in a non-CDTI district. In the East, loiasis prevalence was 29.3% (range = 24.2%-34.6%) in the non-CDTI district but 16.0% (3.3%-26.6%) in the CDTI district with 10 ivermectin rounds (there were no baseline data for the latter). In the Northwest and Southwest 2 districts, reductions from 30.5% to 17.9% (after 9 ivermectin rounds) but from 8.1% to 7.8% (not significantly different after 14 rounds) were registered post CDTI, respectively. Similar trends in infection intensity were observed in all sites. There was a negative relationship between adherence to ivermectin treatment and prevalence/intensity of infection in all sites. None of the children (aged 10-14 years) examined in the East CDTI project harboured high (8,000-30,000 mf/ml) or very high (>30,000 mf/ml) microfilarial loads. Individuals who had taken >5 ivermectin treatments were 2.1 times more likely to present with no microfilaraemia than those with less treatments.

CONCLUSION
In areas where onchocerciasis and loiasis are co-endemic, CDTI reduces the number of, and microfilaraemia in L. loa-infected individuals, and this, in turn, will help to prevent non-neurological and neurological complications post-ivermectin treatment among CDTI adherents.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QV Pharmacology > Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antineoplastic Agents > QV 250 Anti-infective agents (General)
QX Parasitology > Helminths. Annelida > QX 301 Filarioidea
QX Parasitology > QX 4 General works
WA Public Health > Health Problems of Special Population Groups > WA 395 Health in developing countries
WA Public Health > Health Administration and Organization > WA 546 Local Health Administration. Community Health Services
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006750
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 24 Sep 2018 12:44
Last Modified: 24 Sep 2018 12:44
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/9350

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