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Integrating Point-of-care testing (POCT) for HIV, Syphilis, Malaria and Anaemia into Antenatal Care Services at Dispensaries in Western Kenya

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Yan, Nicole (2018) Integrating Point-of-care testing (POCT) for HIV, Syphilis, Malaria and Anaemia into Antenatal Care Services at Dispensaries in Western Kenya, Thesis (Doctoral), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

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Abstract

HIV, syphilis, malaria, and anaemia are major causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Despite global and national policies advocating for screening of these conditions, only HIV testing has achieved good coverage, precluding early detection and appropriate management in pregnancy. Rapid pointof-care tests (POCTs) provide an opportunity to integrate diagnosis and provide timely treatment of these conditions in rural antenatal care (ANC) settings.
After an introductory chapter, a review of the literature on these four conditions in pregnancy is presented with a focus on SSA. The thesis then shifts attention to Kenya, a country that embodies many of the disease challenges and health system characteristics of the region. Kenyan ANC policy recommends testing for HIV, syphilis and anaemia and preventive strategies for malaria. The following chapters are comprised of three linked studies conducted in western Kenya, that use different methods to progressively investigate the implementation success of integrated point-of-care testing (POCT) for HIV, syphilis, malaria and anaemia at seven peripheral dispensaries.
Baseline data confirmed that testing requirements for syphilis, malaria and anaemia are not currently met at dispensary level. We implemented an intervention where test kits were supplied and training plus supervision were provided to enable healthcare workers to conduct integrated POCT for pregnant women. Adoption and fidelity were measured quantitatively using exit interviews, antenatal registers and proficiency scores (Study 1: Integrating point-of-care testing (POCT) for HIV, syphilis, malaria and anaemia in antenatal care at dispensary level in western Kenya: an implementation study) while acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility were assessed qualitatively (Study 2: Exploring healthcare workers and pregnant women’s perspectives on appropriateness, acceptability and feasibility of integrating point-of care testing: A qualitative study). Our findings show that the innovation was highly adopted, meaning almost all pregnant women received the essential tests. This was supported by the qualitative findings where healthcare workers and pregnant women found the innovation acceptable and appropriate. However, fidelity to clinical management guidelines can still be improved. Our qualitative findings provide some explanation for these gaps. One common sentiment among interviews with healthcare workers was that workload was perceived to be a barrier to providing quality care. We explored this further with discrete-event simulation modelling (Study 3: Investigating the operational impact of integrating HIV, syphilis, malaria and anaemia point-of-care testing in antenatal care clinics in western Kenya: a discrete event simulation model) and found the healthcare workers were actually under-utilized. This suggests that nurses should, in theory, have sufficient time to deliver essential ANC services. While integrating POCT addresses one gap, additional interventions to support and supervise healthcare workers are needed to ensure appropriate and high quality of care. An integrated approach to health systems strengthening and more investment in implementation and translation research using multi-methods are needed.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: uk.bl.ethos.755799
Subjects: WC Communicable Diseases > Sexually Transmitted Diseases > WC 140 Sexually transmitted diseases
WC Communicable Diseases > Sexually Transmitted Diseases > WC 160 Syphilis
WC Communicable Diseases > Virus Diseases > Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV Infections > WC 503 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV infections
WC Communicable Diseases > Tropical and Parasitic Diseases > WC 750 Malaria
WH Hemic and Lymphatic Systems > Hematologic Diseases. Immunologic Factors. Blood Banks > WH 155 Anemia
WQ Obstetrics > Pregnancy > WQ 200 General works
Faculty: Department: Clinical Sciences & International Health > Clinical Sciences Department
Depositing User: Lynn Roberts-Maloney
Date Deposited: 25 Oct 2018 13:13
Last Modified: 18 Jul 2019 10:59
URI: https://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/9471

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