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Characterization and monitoring of deltamethrin‑resistance in Anopheles culicifacies in the presence of a long‑lasting insecticide‑treated net intervention

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Kona, Madhavinadha Prasad, Kamaraju, Raghavendra, Donnelly, Martin ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5218-1497, Bhatt, Rajendra Mohan, Nanda, Nutan, Chourasia, Mehul Kumar, Swain, Dipak Kumar, Suman, Shrity, Uragayala, Sreehari, Kleinschmidt, Immo and Pandey, Veena (2018) 'Characterization and monitoring of deltamethrin‑resistance in Anopheles culicifacies in the presence of a long‑lasting insecticide‑treated net intervention'. Malaria Journal, Vol 17, Issue 414.

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Abstract

Abstract
Background: Deltamethrin-impregnated, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were distributed in the study area
from November 2014 to January 2015 to evaluate their impact on malaria transmission in the presence of insecticideresistant
vectors. Studies were carried out in 16 selected clusters in Keshkal sub-district, Chhattisgarh State, India to
monitor and characterize deltamethrin resistance in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato.
Results: Deltamethrin susceptibility of An. culicifacies decreased in a post-LLIN survey compared to a pre-LLIN survey
and was not significant (p > 0.05) while, the knockdown values showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Pre-exposure
to piperonyl butoxide, triphenyl phosphate showed synergism against deltamethrin (p < 0.001). Biochemical assays
showed significantly (p < 0.05) elevated monooxygenases in 3 of 5 clusters in post-LLIN survey-I that increased to 10
of 11 clusters in post-LLIN survey-II, while esterases were found significantly elevated in all clusters and both enzymes
were involved in conferring pyrethroid resistance, not discounting the involvement of kdr (L1014L/S) gene that was
heterozygous and at low frequency (4–5%).
Conclusion: This field study, in a tribal district of India, after distribution of deltamethrin-impregnated LLINs showed
decrease in deltamethrin susceptibility in An. culicifacies, a major vector of malaria in this study area and in India.
Results indicated development of resistance as imminent with the increase in insecticide selection pressure. There is
an urgent need to develop new vector control tools, with insecticide classes having novel mechanisms of resistance,
to avoid or delay the onset of resistance. Regular insecticide resistance monitoring and mechanistic studies should
be the priority for the malaria control programmes to suggest strategies for insecticide resistance management. The
global commitment to eliminate malaria by 2030 needs various efforts that include development of combination vector
control products and interventions and few are becoming available.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 510 Mosquitoes
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 515 Anopheles
QX Parasitology > Insects. Other Parasites > QX 600 Insect control. Tick control
Faculty: Department: Biological Sciences > Vector Biology Department
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2557-1
Depositing User: Stacy Murtagh
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2018 12:09
Last Modified: 26 Nov 2018 12:09
URI: http://archive.lstmed.ac.uk/id/eprint/9615

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